Total life-cycle costs include initial design, construction, operations, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. As Figure 1 illustrates, 80% of a facility'si life-cycle costs are associated with Operation & Maintenance (O&M). A well-developed strategic O&M Planii will define and communicate best management practices (BMPs) for an organization.
Developed by the organization, a strategic O&M Plan (hereinafter referred to as the Plan) provides guidance for decreasing life-cycle O&M costs, extending the lifespan of facility systems, reducing response times to facility issues, improving personnel satisfaction levels, etc. The Plan is not a static tool, but a living document that is consulted and regularly updated. It serves as a primary tool for communicating O&M strategies and desired outcomes.
O&M planning considerations include the following:
- Strategy & Goals
- Budgeting & Capital Planning
- LEAN Methodology
- Multiple Competencies, Business Processes, and Activities
- Supporting Technologies and Tools
- Education, Training, and Support Services
- Metrics/Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
Strategy & Goals
Establishing, documenting, communicating, and improving an organization's overall O&M strategy greatly aids stakeholders (i.e. facilities management staff, senior management, facilities users, external service providers, oversight groups, etc.) to better understand and appreciate the importance of proper funding and support.
Operations incorporate all services required to ensure that facilities will do what they are designed to do, critical throughout the life-cycle of a facility. Service requirements, including life-cycle cost information are shared among organizations and individuals, from initial concept through demolition. (Refer to Multiple Competencies, Business Processes, and Activities).
There are several types of maintenance that can be grouped into two, high-level categories: Planned Maintenanceiii and Corrective Maintenanceiv (see Table 1).
|Planned Maintenance||Corrective Maintenance|
|Routine/Preventive Maintenancev||Unplanned Maintenancevi|
|Predictive Maintenancevii||Emergency Maintenanceviii|
|General Maintenanceix||User Requested Needs|
Determining the allocation of limited resources in favor of planned versus corrective maintenance is a primary objective of any organization. On average, corrective maintenance costs three to five times or greater (3x — 5x+), more than planned maintenance, not including associated disruptions to work or services being performed in the facilities (education, healthcare, production, etc.). Properly allocating funds for planned maintenance can significantly reduce overall negative financial and operational impacts upon an organization, as illustrated in the Pavement Condition Index (Figure 2).
Planned maintenance contributes to limiting the frequency and negative impact of corrective maintenance occurrences thereby reducing overall O&M costs.
Planning helps an organization to better leverage the experience and value of internal and external resources, throughout a facility's life-cycle. Proper planning can quantitatively determine sufficient O&M funding and help to build and maintain requisite capabilities to successfully execute the Plan, including providing incentives to optimize O&M practices.
The following are potential O&M goals and important considerations:
- Maximize asset value
- Extend asset value
- Incorporate a life-cycle costing perspective
- Reduce O&M costs
- Mitigate risk and unplanned events
- Enhance facility user experiences and increase satisfaction
- Establish and assure O&M funding levels
- Continuously enhance capabilities of internal and external personnel
- Provide a "customer—centric" LEAN operating model
- Communicate the importance of regular maintenance
- Assure appropriate staffing levels and capability
- Consider decommissioning costs
- Identify all parties responsible for and linked to O&M
- Clarity roles and responsibilities
- Asset inventory
- Standardized and ongoing physical and functional condition assessments
- Decision support tools to assist in project prioritization
- Start-up and normal operating procedures
- Support technology, records, and reporting system
- Monitoring, metrics, and key performance metrics (KPIs)
- Public notifications & permits
- Life/safety issues
- Environmental issues
- Emergency operating procedures
Budgeting and Capital Planning
Since 80% of total capital expended across the lifespan of a facility goes to O&M, O&M activities are almost always inadequately funded.
Collecting and dissemination information to key decision-makers such as Senior Facilities Management and the Chief Financial Officer will help acquire funding, improve facilities services, and reduce equipment down time. The use of common terms versus technical jargon, emphasizing risk mitigation, clearly defining organizational benefits and clearly defining timelines can help communicate those needs.
The ability to predict current and future requirements necessary to maintain a predetermined service level aids Planning. Considerations include the following:
- Manpower requirements/staff (In-house and Third-Party/Contract Maintenance)
- Current and desired conditions of buildings systems and equipment
- Required documentation - for example O&M Manuals
- Detailed (line item) O&M task descriptions (labor, material, & equipment line items and associated costs), and checklists
- Estimated service life for physical assets
- Maintenance, repair, and replacement costs
Determining the priority of capital reinvestment into facilities based upon a life-cycle perspective has proven to provide the highest likelihood of positive overall results. Many organizations spend a significant amount, and some even the majority, of O&M funds on emergency, unplanned projects and/or projects. The result is an inability to maximize value to an organization.
LEAN methodology was first introduced by Henry Ford, later expanded by Toyota, and subsequently adopted my many manufacturing and service sectors. An understanding of LEANxi fundamentals and their application to O&M and overall Facilities Management will benefit Planning. Briefly, the LEAN methodology involves the consistent application of business processes and workflows in support of the following:
- Early and ongoing collaboration among all participants and stakeholders
- Focus upon client requirements and best value outcomes
- Clearly defined and documented roles, responsibilities, workflows
- Shared, performance-based risk/reward
- Decision support based upon current and actionable information
- Common terms, definitions, & data formats — Common data environment (CDE)
- Mutual trust and respect among participants
- Continuous improvement the O&M Plan and associated processes
Specific to O&M, LEAN practices help provide a framework to integrate and maximize the capabilities of available people, processes, information, and technology to address ongoing facilities requirements, as Figures 3 through 5 illustrate. Promoting awareness and education of LEAN O&M best management practices leads to improved outcomes.
Multiple Competencies, Business Processes, and Activities
Facilities O&M management spans multiple competencies (core skills), business processes (asset management practices/industries), and activities, such as the following (also, see Figure 6).
- Strategic planning
- Cost estimating
- Space planning
- Capital planning and management
- Construction project delivery methodology
- Space management
- Operations & Maintenance
- Inventory and maintenance disposition management
NOTE: The term "Big Data" has recently become popular to describe the multiple sources, formats, and uses of data that can be leveraged to monitor and improve organizational performance. The Construction Operations Building information exchange (COBie) has become one of the most widely known data formats. COBie is an information exchange specification for the life-cycle capture and delivery of information needed by facility managers. It can be viewed in design, construction, and maintenance software as well as in simple spreadsheets. Other data formats include MasterFormat, Uniformat, and Omniclass.
Supporting Technology and Tools
Technology and tools used to lower the cost of implementing and managing LEAN O&M best management practices (BPMs) include the following:
- Application Software
- Building Automation Systems (BAS)
- Building Information Modeling (BIM) (Model & Management Systems) Capital Planning and Management Systems (CPMS)
- Computer-aided Facilities Management Systems (CAFM)
- Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS)
- Cost Estimating, Procurement, & Construction Project Delivery and Management Systems
- Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
- Integrated Workplace Management Systems (IWMS)
- Construction code databases
- Construction cost databases
- Industry specific glossaries
- Industry Standards (ISO, NIST)
- O&M Plan
- O&M Manuals
- Standardized data architectures (Cobie, Masterformat, Uniformat, Omniclass)
- Technical construction specifications
Education, Training, and Support Services
Building the capabilities of internal and external O&M teams involves an ongoing commitment to education and training. From an educational standpoint, both traditional educational institutions and ongoing professional education are increasing their focus upon life-cycle management and the role of O&M.
The need for and level of training requirements, including training aids and O&M manuals, should be specified in the Plan. The type of training (introductory, advanced, certification), format (online/virtual, classroom, self-taught), and frequency is dependent upon each organization's requirements, types of systems and equipment, and amount of work performed by in-house staff versus that to be outsourced. Support services may include outsourcing certain O&M requirements, independent and/or peer-based audits of O&M practices, and various consulting services.
Metrics/Key Performance Indicators (KPIS)
Ongoing performance measurement supports informed, information-based, decision making and helps to maximize the use of available resources.
From a generic perspective, an effective measurement system includes the following:
- Clearly defined, actionable, and measurable goals
- Key performance indicators that monitor the overall administration of O&M program, as well as individual projects / task orders, and all associated workflows, deliverables, and outcomes
- Established baselines enabling measurement of historical and current progress
- A basis of timely, accurate, repeatable, and verifiable information based upon standardized terms, definitions, and data architectures
- Applicable reporting and feedback systems to support continuous improvement of processes, practices, and outcomes
- Leading Indicators (forecast future trends inside and outside the organization) as well as lagging indicators
- Objective and unbiased information (not subject to manipulation) that is normalized (can be benchmarked against other organizations, departments, locations)
- Statistically reliable
- Unobtrusive (not disruptive of work or trust)
- Appropriate (measures the right things)
The importance of performance measurement cannot be understated. It is a fundamental element of any successful O&M program.
O&M performance indicators include the following:
- Annualized Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) per building per gross area = Rate per square foot
- Annualized TCO per building/Current replacement value = Percent of Current Replacement Value (CRV)
- Annualized TCO per building/Net assignable square feet = Cost rate per net assignable square feet per building
- Annualized TCO per building/Non-assignable square feet = Cost rate per non-assignable square feet per building
- Annualized TCO per building/Building Interior square feet = Cost rate per interior square foot per building
- Churn Rate
- Utilization Rate
- AI (Adaptation Index) or PI (Programmatic Index) = PR (Program Requirements)/CRV (Current Replacement Value)
- Uptime or Downtime = Defined in percent, as amount of time asset is suitable for the program(s) served
- Facility Operating Gross Square Foot (GSF) Index (SAM Performance Indicator: APPA 2003)
- Custodial Costs per square foot
- Grounds Keeping Costs per square foot
- Energy Usage is expressed as a ratio of British Thermal Units (BTUs) for each Gross Square Foot (GSF) of facility, group of facilities, site or portfolio = BTUs / Gross Area GSF
- Utility Costs per square foot
- Waste Removal Costs per square foot
- Facility Operating Current Replacement Value (CRV) Index = Facility Operating CRV Index = Annual Facility Maintenance Operating Expenditures ($)/Current Replacement Value ($) (SAM Performance Indicator: APPA 2003)
- Facility Operating GSF Index = Annual Facility Maintenance Operating Expenditures ($)/Gross Area (GSF)
- Planned/Preventive Maintenance Costs per square foot
- Emergency Maintenance Costs as a percentage of Annual Operations Expenditures
- Unscheduled/Unplanned Maintenance Costs as a percentage of Annual Operations Expenditures
- Repair costs (man hours and materials) as a percentage of Annual Operations Expenditures
- FCI (Facility Condition Index) = DM (Deferred Maintenance) + CR (Capital Renewal)/CRV (Current Replacement Value)
- Recapitalization Rate, Reinvestment Rate
- Deferred Maintenance Backlog
- Facilities Deterioration Rate
- AI (Adaptive Index) or PI (Programmatic Index) = PR (Program Requirements)/CRV (Current Replacement Value)
- FQI (Facility Quality Index) or Quality Index or Index = FCI (Facility Condition Index)+ AI (Adaptive Index)
- Capital Renewal Index = Annual Capital Renewal and Renovation/Modernization Expenditure ($)/Current Replacement Value ($)EMERGING ISSUES
Challenges and Obstacles
While obtaining adequate O&M funding remains an elusive goal for many, the most significant challenge is change management. Facilities span the careers of individuals, and O&M management transcends generations. As a result, known future impacts may be postponed until "someone else's watch." Further, the impact of new strategies and processes can take years to show measurable improvements. Within a society that seeks instant gratification and financial payback periods sometimes measure in months versus years, the need for leadership and commitment of property owner management is paramount.
Additionally, the importance of facilities in the minds of senior management may not be fully appreciated, thus creating the need to better inform them of associated risks and benefits of various O&M strategies. Here, a somewhat pervasive focus upon first-costs versus lifecycle costs must be addressed and altered. Communicating the fact that an emergency repair will have ten times (10x) the cost of an appropriate maintenance operation, is an ongoing need, as well as providing cost multi-year cost impacts of alternative O&M strategies.
Historically, sharing information has been somewhat problematic for a variety of reasons, especially in areas involving costs and or techniques. This obstacle can result in higher costs and marginalized capabilities if not fully addressed. The level of collaboration and transparency required is a change in the way many organizations operate on a day to day business.
Relevant Codes and Standards
Department of Defense
Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC)
Department of Energy
- Executive Order 13221 Energy Efficient Standby Power Devices
- Executive Order 13693 Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
- ISO/DIS 41001 Facility management — Management systems — Requirements with guidance for use
- ISO 41011:2017 Facility management — Vocabulary
- PBS-P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service General Services Administration (GSA)
- Deferred Maintenance — The Use of Parametrics for Estimating Maintenance Costs
- Estimating — WBDG Page for construction cost estimating
- Life-cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) — WBDG page for assessing the total cost of facility ownership
- Life-cycle Data Handoff: Guidelines for BIM Project Managers — WBDG page related to delivering building life-cycle data to the building owner
- Omniclass — WBDG page related to a classification system for the construction industry, characterized as "a strategy for classifying the built environment."
- Achieving High-Performance Federal Facilities: Strategies and Approaches for Transformational Change (2011)
- Asset Lifecycle Model for Total Cost of Ownership Management - Framework, Glossary & Definitions
- Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC) Programs - Computational support for the analysis of capital investments in buildings
- COBie — Construction Operations Building Information Exchange
- Core Competencies for Federal Facilities Asset Management Through 2020: — Transformational Strategies (2008)
- Financial Impact and Analysis of Equipment Inventories part 1 by Robert Keady, in Facilities Engineering Journal, November—December 2009
- Financial Impact and Analysis of Equipment Inventories part 1 by Robert Keady, in Facilities Engineering Journal, January—February 2010
- GSA National Operations & Maintenance Specification
- Investments in Federal Facilities: Asset Management Strategies for the 21st Century (2004)
- Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities (2012)
- WBDG04 Optimizing Operations and Maintenance (O&M)
- WBDG13 Strategies for Sustainable Historic Preservation
- WBDG17 Achieving Sustainable Site Design Through Low Impact Development Practices
- FEMP01 Commissioning for Existing Federal Buildings
- FEMP09 Sustainable Strategies for Existing Federal Facilities
- FEMPFTS19 Implementing Deep Retrofits: A Whole Building Approach
- FEMPFTS23 Re—Thinking Operations & Maintenance for High Performance Buildings