Corrosion-Related D, CPO and Other Organization Funded RDT&E Facilities CPC Projects  

By: Joseph C. Dean, P.E., and Ron Nolte, for the Director, Corrosion Policy & Oversight (D, CPO) [OUSD (AT& L)

Updated: 04-27-2018

Facilities technology projects play an important role when finding solutions for corrosion prevention and control (CPC). The benefits gained from these technologies affect both the Department of Defense (DoD), other government agencies and industry. With a keen awareness of the unmitigated ravages of corrosion on the facilities lifecycle, the inclusion of new technologies will extend life expectancy and reduce Sustainment, Restoration, and Modernization (SRM) costs. As technologies evolve, keeping the knowledge base current is essential to achieving reduced lifecycle costs.

Technologies are those innovative or non-standard technical processes and products that may later be identified in criteria. Technology includes the practical application of better products, processes or procedures, and standards. Discoveries of new CPC technologies occur when the combined efforts of industry, academia, and DoD result in corrosion-cost savings. The incorporation of these successful CPC-related outcomes as criteria updates ensures that CPC factors are considered in the construction of new facilities as well as in day-to-day sustainment operations.

Since Fiscal Year 2005, the Director, Corrosion Policy and Oversight (CPO) has partnered with the Military Departments to fund technology demonstration/implementation projects. The focus of these projects is to demonstrate the benefits of technologies in DoD applications and implement them through changes in criteria, specifications, or process changes. Project summaries and outcomes of corrosion-related Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) projects are listed in the following Table to include transitions into criteria. Examples of non-DoD, private sector, and other non-government industry corrosion-related technology and improvements projects can be found at the end of the Table.

The project descriptions provided in the Table are presented as they were submitted to obtain funding. Bold text highlights project results that have been submitted to the appropriate Discipline Working Group (DWG) for consideration for inclusion into criteria documents, or, where results have been approved and included in the applicable UFC/UFGS. The Corrosion-Related D, CPO and Other Organization Funded RDT&E Facilities CPC Projects Table was originally developed for the FICE Study submitted to Congress in July 2013. This updated version is hosted on the CPC Source on the Whole Building Design Guide.

Air Force projects
2005

AF-F-116: SCADA Monitoring of Cathodic Protection Systems, Robins Air Force Base (2005)

The objective of this project is to remotely monitor cathodic protection system operations (using supervisory control and data acquisition, or SCADA) in an effort to ensure they meet Air Force regulations, NACE standards, and the Code of Federal Regulations. Monitoring efforts use hardwire and radio unit instrumentation to transmit real-time voltage and current readings back to central monitoring.

2011

F11AF09: Flexible Steel Reinforced Polyethylene Fuel Piping (2011)

The objective of this project is to explore the use of steel reinforced polyethylene piping to reduce corrosion costs, installation time, and construction costs. The technology utilized in this project is steel reinforced polyethylene piping. This piping offers benefits of non-metallic piping for corrosion protection with ANSI pressure ratings comparable to rigid steel pipe. This project will replace a portion of the underground piping in a POL Bulk Storage area. Use of Flexible Steel Polyethylene Piping is applicable in all Services for fuel transfers.

Navy Projects
2005

N-F-221: Self-Priming Cladding for Splash Zone Steel (2005)

The objective of this project was to increase the service life of splash zone steel coatings. The "splash zone" is defined as the area between the year's lowest tidal mark and up to 10 feet above the year's highest tidal mark. It is extremely difficult to protect steel structures against corrosion in this zone, where corrosion rates on unprotected steel have been documented to exceed 30 mils per year. This project applied a new technology developed by the New Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) that employs 40+ mils epoxy novolac/polysulfide. Results from this project have been included in UFGS-09 97 13.26 Coating of Steel Waterfront Structures and in the recently published UFC 4-152-01 Design: Piers and Wharves.

N-F-222: Red Hill Pipeline Corrosion Assessment, Fleet Industrial Supply Center (FISC) Pearl Harbor (2005)

The objective of this project is to conduct an in-line inspection of a 32-inch diesel pipeline from the Red Hill Storage Facility to Pearl Harbor to determine its extent of corrosion and integrity. This will be accomplished using "smart pigs," inspection vehicles that move inside a pipe by the flowing material. This was a Site-Specific project funded to "pig" the fuel lines due to an integrity inspection never being performed. While it did use the latest technology, it was not a true demonstration project. The final report also specifies it as Site-Specific.

N-F-223: Ambient Temperature Cured Coatings (2005)

The objective of this project is to define the functional parameters for application and use of ambient temperature cured coatings. These coatings will improve long-term performance, reduce maintenance costs, and compile and assess ongoing installation at Jacksonville Naval Air Station (NAS). The primary interest for application of this technology is on steel structures in aggressively corrosive environments, but it will also be applied to other areas, such as substrates and environments to maintain or restore existing coating systems. Project led to development of a SBIR topic for low VOC fluorinated polyurethane. The project reassessment states that the products failed to perform as expected and will not be implemented. This was the first-year effort. The second-year effort was project FNV13. This is where a product was developed and replaced existing systems in UFGS 09 97 13.27, Exterior Coating of Steel Structures.

N-F-229: Integrated Concrete Pier Piling Repair and Corrosion Protection System (2005)

Reinforced concrete pilings at Ford Island in Pearl Harbor have suffered from significant corrosion of the steel rebar. This resulted in the loss of load handling capacity because of concrete spalling. The Ford Island bridge repair project was to install a commercially available, integrated concrete pier piling repair and corrosion protection system on spalled or cracked concrete pier piling. The technology utilized in this project consists of integrated concrete repair and cathodic protection prefabricated in a fiberglass jacket, referred to as LifeJacket®. This technology restores structures to optimum operational condition; reduces recurrence of reinforcing steel corrosion; reduces maintenance and life-cycle costs; and increases service life. The repair project served as a test program for the LifeJacket® technology.

This integrated pile repair corrosion protection system comprises a high purity expanded zinc mesh cathodic protection anode mounted into a durable, stay-in-place fiberglass form. This positions the anode material the appropriate distance relative to the steel rebar in the piling. The form creates an essential annular space for filling with concrete material to complete or improve the structural repairs to the piling. A supplemental bulk anode is added to protect the submerged portion of the pile and minimize current demand on the lower portion of the anode mesh. The system comes ready to install with all components pre-positioned and fixed in place. The external jacket material is a durable fiberglass shell, equipped with a unique interlocking seam for easy installation.

Based on the test results, the LifeJacket® technology generally functions as advertised; the pile reinforcing steel is adequately protected from corrosion and no further corrosion-caused spalling and de–laminations in the portions of piles with installed LifeJackets® is anticipated for at least 20 years. The system provides a viable repair alternative to reinforced concrete piles contaminated with chlorides, that require significant crack and spall repairs, and where full pile replacement is not economical.

From July through December 2007, NAVFAC EXWC conducted a series of tests after system commissioning to determine the operating status and effectiveness of LifeJacket® galvanic protection technology. These tests and the analysis were funded by D, CPO Project N-F-229, and results from this project have been included in the recently published UFC 3-570-01 Cathodic Protection Design.

2006

FNV01: Corrosion Project Utilizing Infra-Red (IR) Drop Free Sensors (2006)

The objective of this project was to develop IR drop free sensors and a corresponding inspection tool to control and maintain cathodic protection systems on cross-country pipelines. The sensors are used to determine the rate of corrosion on the pipeline system in order to validate the cathodic protection system. IR drop free sensors measure the potential of underground pipelines immediately after briefly interrupting the cathodic protection current. This project was applied to the Guam cross-country pipeline that runs from the Tiyan Pump House to the Anderson Air Force Base Tank Farm. Results from this project have been included in the recently published UFC 3-570-01 Cathodic Protection Design.

FNV04: Modeling Advance Waterfront Metallic Material Corrosion and Protection (2006)

The objective of this project is to accurately represent corrosion behavior of structures using corrosion mitigation modeling software. Specific tasks to achieve this goal include acquiring accurate polarization data, modeling structure surfaces, validating models, and developing requirements and recommendations. This project will utilize three-dimensional Boundary Element Modeling (BEM) software which can accurately predict corrosion behavior using non-linear material polarization relationships. BEM enables analysis of specific facility corrosion issues and corrosion mitigation alternatives. Current plans call for utilization of BEM analysis on a Navy modular hybrid pier and underwater unexploded ordinance.

FNV06: Wire Rope Corrosion for Guyed Antenna Towers (2006)

The objective of this project is to develop reliable inspection tools for the purposes of detecting internal corrosion of structural guy wires, measure corrosive state of guy wires and develop realistic guy replacement criteria. These tools will be built in the form of a “vehicle” comprised an electromagnetic flux leakage sensor and other inspection methods. This “vehicle” will be able to travel along the guy wire and reliably measure and monitor guy wire corrosion over time and space. The inspection tool will ride remotely along each guy wire in order to measure the corrosive state along the full length of the wire. The inspection tool and guy wire corrosion managing process will be applicable for all Navy very low frequency and low frequency (VLF/LF) antennas. The project will initially implement the inspection tool and develop a replacement timetable at the Holt antenna in Australia, which has 357 guy wires.

FNV07: Solar Powered Cathodic Protection System (2006)

The objective of this project was to design and install a solar powered cathodic protection system that will fully and adequately protect water and fuel distribution pipelines from corrosion. This project entailed combining a straightforward impressed current cathodic protection system with a solar-power supply and control system for the rectifier in place of the traditional AC power that is currently not readily available. This project was applied to underwater water utility and fuel pipelines in the eastern side of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Results from this project have been included in the recently published UFC 3-570-01 Cathodic Protection Design.

FNV13: Ambient Temperature Cured Coatings (2006)

The objective of this project is to determine the functional parameters under which ambient temperature cured (ATC) coatings can be used. This project will utilize ATC fluoropolymers, a generic class of coatings that start with a polyurethane resin “back-bone,” which is then fluorinated under high pressure and heat to create the modified coating resin. The resulting coating surface is easy to clean–resistant to chemicals, UV, ablation, abrasion, and impact–and will mitigate the growth of mold/mildew. This technology applies to all Navy and Marine Corps facilities especially exterior steel and interior fuel tanks. Results from this project have been transitioned into the update of UFGS 09 90 00 Paints and Coatings and UFGS 09 97 13.27 Exterior Coating of Steel Structures. For 09 97 13.27 the sole source product developed under the SBIR project cannot move forward without opening it up for competition; funding has not been made available at this time to accomplish this task. Project led to development of a SBIR topic for low VOC fluorinated polyurethane. A product was developed and replaced existing systems in UFGS 09 97 13.27, Exterior Coating of Steel Structures. On hold until a Non-Government Standards are developed for both coats due to sole source nature of using a single manufacturers product

2007

F07NV03: Concrete Corrosion Inhibitors (2007)

The objective of this project is to determine the fundamental influence of commercial inhibitors on corrosion behavior of steel reinforcement in environments typical of the chemistry of marine concrete in different stages of deterioration. The electrochemical (anodic and cathodic) current flow of corrosion cells that develop or are inhibited in concrete environments will be measured. This will provide a direct measure of the effectiveness of inhibitors under evaluation for concrete repair. The results will directly impact practices in use for concrete repairs, overlays, and rehabilitation projects. The information developed and data obtained through this project will be used to support the delivery of innovative solutions to mitigate corrosion of the waterfront infrastructure through the waterfront subject matter expert (SME) programs.

F07NV04: Navy Remote Monitoring Unit (RMU) (2007)

The objective of this project was to install and demonstrate the effectiveness of recently developed cathodic protection systems rectifier RMU utilizing satellite data transmission. This project installed and demonstrated the effectiveness of recently developed CPS RMUs utilizing satellite data transmission for the fuel storage and distribution CPS located in Guam to verify the ability to receive the information from this remote region. Successful implementation of this technology in Guam will demonstrate its transition for use on other Navy and DoD installations, as well as other critical facilities that utilize cathodic protection systems. These facilities include waterfront structures, potable water tanks, and utility piping. Results from this project have been included in the recently published UFC 3-570-01 Cathodic Protection Design.

F07NV07: Stainless Steel Reinforcing for Concrete Structures (2007)

The objective of this project is to determine constructability and long term performance by using candidate stainless steel (SS) reinforcing materials in a working marine concrete structure repair project and installing them in new construction. The project will be accomplished in two phases—development and implementation. The development phase will consist of comparing the lower cost corrosion resistant materials with austenitic stainless steel 316 and the commonly used duplex grade 2205. The installation phase will consist of installing top performing alloys into a waterfront facility repair project or new construction. This project will be implemented as part of a major pier repair project in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Results from this project have been included in pending draft re-writes of UFGS 03 31 29 Marine Concrete and UFGS 03 01 32 Concrete Rehabilitation for Civil Works (superseded by UFGS 03 01 00 Rehabilitation of Concrete). General consideration options for selection of SS reinforcing included in UFGS 03 31 29 Marine Concrete.

2008

F08NV17: Concrete Galvanode Zinc Rod Cathodic Protection Systems for Concrete Rebar, Kilo (Hawaii) Wharf (2008)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a discrete galvanic anode cathodic protection system for the purpose of mitigating corrosion during the repair of reinforced concrete. This project will demonstrate the effectiveness of alkali-activated bulk zinc anodes by installing them in the Kilo Wharf upgrade project located in Guam. These anodes will be used to mitigate future corrosion damage to the existing caisson wharf components. Results from this project have been included in the recently published UFC 3-570-01 Cathodic Protection Design.

F08NV18: Encapsulated Embedded Galvanic Cathodic Protection for Concrete Dry-Dock Patches (2008)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the design and installation methodology of embedded galvanic cathodic protection for use in Navy dry-docks. This project will utilize zinc anodes that are encased in a proprietary porous solid matrix which is formulated to absorb the corrosion by-products thus eliminating any internal stresses to the concrete that may otherwise lead to internal cracking. These anodes will be embedded into the concrete. Results from this project have been included in the recently published UFC 3-570-01 Cathodic Protection Design.

2009

F09NV04: Electrical Resistance (ER) Probe Corrosion Sensors (2009)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate and evaluate the use of recently developed ER probes to improve the corrosion monitoring systems on Navy piers. ER probes have been developed that will allow direct measurement of the corrosion rate of a structure. They can be used to indicate the effectiveness of cathodic protection in obscure areas. This technology was demonstrated and evaluated on the Delta-Echo POL pier on Naval Base Guam. Results from this project have been included in the recently published UFC 3-570-01 Cathodic Protection Design.

F09NV05: Tank Interior Corrosion Sensors (2009)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of electrical resistance probes that have the capability to continuously monitor corrosion conditions in corrosion “hotspots” on the interior bottom of POL storage tanks. The technology utilized in this project consists of an electrical resistance (ER) monitoring system that operates by measuring the change in electrical resistance of a metallic element immersed in a product media relative to a reference element sealed within the probe body. The ER probe system will be designed by NAVFAC Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center engineers and installed in fuel storage tanks at NAS Patuxent River and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune.

F09NV07: High Volume Fly Ash Concrete (2009)

The objective of this project is to provide a no-cost alternative to the mitigation of steel reinforcement corrosion in concrete used for military construction. This project will demonstrate the use of fly ash at 40% replacement of the Portland cement in waterfront concrete structures to improve corrosion resistance of the reinforcing steel. Installation and demonstration of this technology will be part of a construction project in Bremerton, WA. Results will be documented and will help determine a new waterfront structure design standard. Results from this project have been included in UFGS 03 31 29 Marine Concrete and a pending draft re-write of UFC 4-152-01 Design: Piers and Wharves. General write-up in Para 4-1.3 of UFC 4-152-01 published January 2017.

F09NV09: Wire Rope for Antenna Tower Guy Wires (2009)

The objective of this project is to develop tools for inspecting guy wire ropes and develop a realistic timetable for the systematic replacement of guy wires. These tools will be used to perform baseline inspections of guy wires in order to identify breaks, corrosion, and other damage. These tools will be built in the form of a “vehicle” comprised an electromagnetic flux leakage sensor and other inspection methods. This “vehicle” will be able to travel along the guy wire and reliably measure and monitor guy wire corrosion over time and space. The inspection tool will ride remotely along each guy wire in order to measure the corrosive state along the full length of the wire. The inspection tool and guy wire corrosion managing process will be applicable for all Navy very low frequency and low frequency (VLF/LF) antennas. The project will initially implement the inspection tool and develop a replacement timetable at the Holt antenna in Australia, which has 357 guy wires. This project has received ONR funding for field transition.

2010

F10NV02: Electrochemical Chloride Extraction of Reinforced Concrete (2010)

This objective of this project is to demonstrate the electrochemical chloride removal as a means of mitigating corrosion on reinforced concrete in waterfront structures. Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) is essentially a simple process whereby chloride ions are removed from chloride contaminated concrete through ion migration enabled by the application of cathodic protection current at high current densities for a short duration. The ECE process uses a temporary anode (typically a coated titanium mesh) and relatively high current density applied to the steel reinforcing for approximately four to six weeks. The primary deliverable for this project will be a structurally sound, fully operational pier supported by concrete pilings containing repairs that will result in an extended pier service life with minimum required repairs and maintenance. Where appropriate, Navy Design Policies on pier repairs, Unified Facilities Criteria Documents and Guide Specifications, and Lessons Learned Reports will be developed and posted on the NAVFAC and NFEXWC waterfront design and corrosion control websites and the DoD Corrosion Exchange website. Results from this project have been included in pending draft re-writes of UFGS 03 31 29 Marine Concrete and UFGS 03 01 32 Concrete Rehabilitation for Civil Works (superseded by UFGS 03 01 00 Rehabilitation of Concrete). Not yet implemented in either UFGS. Better candidate criteria document may be UFC 4-150-07 Maintenance of Waterfront Structures, last updated 2001. [Note: Industry interest in the technology has lessened significantly since the onset of the project. Two articles were published in 2017 but will need to determine level of market/industry support as time progresses.

F10NV03: Inorganic Zinc Rich Primer/Inorganic Color Topcoat for Exterior Steel (2010)

The objective of this project will demonstrate and validate an inorganic based coating system and compare to know performance characteristics of the current organic coating system. It will also demonstrate and validate the effectiveness of an inorganic topcoat coupled with an inorganic zinc rich coating and provide a framework for the development of education and training programs for corrosion prevention and control students. This project encompasses three major elements of both 10 U.S.C. Sec. 2228 and the DoD Corrosion Prevention and Mitigation Strategic Plan: demonstrating new technology for supporting the war fighter; extending DoD collaboration with industry to model, establish and utilize best practices and processes; and integration of academia to support the education and training of the next generation corrosion workforce

F10NV04: Accelerated Weathering of Organic Materials (NIST SPHERE) (2010)

The NIST Integrating SPHERE is an accelerated weathering system that provides more uniform and accurate UV exposure. This project compares the weathering performance of five chemically different coating systems. The primary purpose of this project is to demonstrate and validate the use of the NIST SPHERE as a more effective tool for determining long-term coating behavior. The primary deliverable will be validation and support of the NIST SPHERE for accelerated weathering. Detailed specifications and operational instructions will also be delivered in the form of manuals (hard copy and electronic). These documents will form the foundation for developing non-government testing standards/protocols. The project was not implemented and the reassessment states "implementation requires the development of a commercial design and a manufacturer. Once developed the manufacturer will hold and maintain distribution and further development."

F10NV06: Nickel Titanium (NiTi)/Titanium Carbide (TiC) Coating for Cavitation of Pump Impeller Blades (2010)

This project merges the proven corrosion and erosion resistance of Ni-Ti alloy with a new ESD coating technology to deposit a composite NiTi/TiC layer that will absorb the high-pressure shocks due to cavitation and resist the erosion effects of harsh abrasive environments. ESD parameters to deposit quality NiTi coating will be developed. Where appropriate, Navy Design Policies for pump impeller modifications, UFC, UFGS, and Lessons Learned Reports will be developed and posted on the NAVFAC and NFEXWC waterfront design and corrosion control websites and the DoD Corrosion Exchange website. A final report describing the details and results of the project will be submitted to OSD and distributed to Navy as well as tri-service design agencies.

F10NV07: Wire Rope Corrosion Reduction for Guyed Antenna Towers (2010)

The objective of this project is to develop a better understanding of all the factors involved in guy wire corrosion. Through investigation of corrosion behavior and the modes of failure, informed choices of viable options for specification of superior cable can be made. Implementation is part of this project and will serve to gauge the effectiveness of the wire rope coatings to reduce corrosion. Results will be included in a new guy wire specification that will increase the serviceable life of the new guy wires. The VLF/LF user community and NNSOC recognize the SPAWAR/NFESC partnership as the best way to investigate and implement facilities improvements relative to the VLF/LF antenna system. A final report describing the details and results of the project will be submitted to OSD and distributed to both the Navy and the SDC 32 members. It is intended that the results of this project will be available for future use by all DoD and industry wide projects. This project was not Implemented. The Project Reassessment states that replacement of any one of these unique VLF/LF antennas today is extremely costly, upwards of $500M for the largest ones. Current costs for replacing each guy wire is about $150K. One thousand wires are to be replaced just at Navy VLF/LF antenna sites over the next 25 years. Once the new specification is implemented, the cost of producing the new wires over the old is expected to be small. Using a conservative life extension estimate of 50%, the ROI calculation is for a 25-year period. However, the Project Reassessment also states that findings indicate significant benefit would be realized from the use of an alternative Al-alloy, if manufacturing difficulties can be overcome. There is no indication that new specifications have been submitted, or the status of manufacturing difficulties. A 50:1 ROI could be obtained according to the Project Reassessment.

F10NV10: Enhanced Guidelines for Marine Concrete Repairs (2010)

This objective leverages MILCON funding with OSD funds to monitor and document the use of enhanced guidelines for concrete repairs. This guideline specification will provide guidance selection and application of materials and methods for the repair of concrete marine structures. Results will be used to plan future MILCON and establish NAVFAC policy. Where appropriate, NAVFAC Wide Design Policies (WDP) for waterfront repairs and Unified Facilities Criteria Documents and Guide Specifications (UFCDGS) will be developed for use by all of NAVFAC as well as tri-service waterfront structure installation management personnel. A final report describing the details and results of the project will be submitted to OSD and distributed to the Navy as well as other tri-service design agencies. The final report will document the use of enhanced guidelines for marine concrete repairs. Results from this project have been included in UFGS 03.01 Rehabilitation of Concrete and the recently published UFC 4-152-01 Design: Piers and Wharves. Also included in write-up in Para 4-1.3 of UFC 4-152-01 published January 2017.

2011

F11NV02: Pipe Wrap (2011)

The objective of this project is to evaluate a candidate pipe wrap with the required structural integrity to assess the parameters and techniques necessary for a successful repair. The pipe wrap to be tested is a carbon fiber fabric wrap with a 100 % solids epoxy that cures into a composite material that is claimed to have excellent mechanical properties. This project will be implemented to reinforce compromised pipeline segments that cannot use cathodic protection and coating alone is not sufficient.

F11NV04: Thermally “Insulating” Coatings (2011)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate/validate the effectiveness of thermally “insulating” coatings against conventional insulation on heated distribution lines. Some recent coatings developments include what have been billed as “insulating” coatings. Their advantage is that they are thin single coats so damage/corrosion problems to the line would not be hidden, they are easily repaired, and they do not absorb moisture so would not lose their insulating characteristics as easily as the heavier standard insulation. A smaller diameter profile may also have the added benefit of being able to fit into tighter spaces or use a larger line to provide improved service to the customer.

F11NV05: Pre- and Post-Stressing Concrete (2011)

The objective of this project was to explore the feasibility of pre- and post-stressing all components in typical waterfront structures, and in particular pile-support piers. Concrete is strong in compression but has limited tensile strength. Proper application of a compressive preload in a concrete member can be used to limit the tensile stresses and the cracks that occur at critical sections. Successful application of pre- or post-stressing will minimize or eliminate macro-cracks that form under service load conditions in corrosive environments. The main deliverable for this project will be a pier with enhanced durability against corrosion. Results from this project have been included in UFGS 03 31 29 Marine Concrete and the recently published UFC 4-152-01 Design: Piers and Wharves. The methodology is now being used in the industry.

F11NV06: Portable Spray Gun for Coating Spot Repairs (2011)

Spot repair/coating is a regular maintenance procedure that is routinely done over a complete recoating job. Although spot treatment is less costly than a complete recoat, the frequency in which this procedure is done still makes this an expensive event. A portable spray gun for architectural finishes (waterborne coatings) was recently developed and made available for general purchase. There is no equivalent for applying industrial type coatings requiring higher pressures and meeting explosion “proof” requirements when flammable solvents are utilized. A field demonstration of this spray gun technology will be conducted at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam.

F11NV07: Corrosion Protection for Bulk Fuel Storage Tank Bottoms (2011)

A new method must be developed to retrofit corrosion prevention and control systems for above ground storage tanks (ASTs) with a Release Prevention Barrier (RPB). This project will demonstrate the feasibility of two alternative methods: (1) installation of commercially available rod type anodes through the tank ringwall, and (2) installation of a system that will allow injection of corrosion inhibitors into the interstitial space under the tank bottom. The primary deliverable will be alternative retrofit corrosion protection systems for controlling corrosion and maintaining the fuel tanks so that costly repairs or leaks are avoided. This demonstration will provide technological and economical creditability to leverage against more costly options for cathodic protection replacements and maintain life cycle of fuel storage tanks.

F11NV08: Composite Pump Impellers (2011)

The objective of this project is to test and validate new fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite pump impellers to resist corrosion erosion and cavitation in marine environments. This project will evaluate the corrosion, erosion and cavitation advantages of FRP composite impellers over metallic impellers used in hydro pumps in Guam. Several FRP composite systems will be evaluated including: fiberglass and carbon fiber-based composites and thermoset resin systems versus thermoplastic systems. The technology can be employed to immediately extend the service life of Naval facility pumps.

F11NV09: Energy Harvesting Power Module (2011)

The objective of this project is to design and test a self-powered energy harvesting power module for a recently developed cathodic protection system rectifier remote monitoring unit (RMU). This project will develop a power module that harvests energy from the cathodic protection line directly by tapping into the DC voltage leads at each monitoring station. The module will consist of an electrical circuit to charge a robust capacitor or small rechargeable battery to provide power to the RMU. Successful integration of the power module with the commercial RMU will be installed and evaluated for the fuel storage and distribution cathodic protection system located in Guam, where the RMU’s with lithium batteries are currently being field tested.

2012

F12NV01: Crack Resistant Concrete Repairs (2012)

The objective of this project is to evaluate the performance of crack resistant concrete repair material developed through Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) as compared to conventional concrete repairs. Application of this project was conducted on Pier 14 at Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia. Report is being finalized.

F12NV02: Cathodic Protection Anode Beds (2012)

The objective of this project is to evaluate the viability of recently developed environmentally friendly cathodic protection anode system. The technology that will be utilized in this project is EnvirAnode®, an environmentally friendly anode design. A test bed of EnvirAnodes will be installed to verify the hygroscopic properties of the material. Retrofit installation of environmentally friendly anodes for an existing cathodic protection system will occur at one or two candidate locations. The test site will be a shallow anode bed in Guam or Hawaii. Results from this project have been included in the recently published UFC 3-570-01 Cathodic Protection Design.

F12NV05: Allowable Concrete Crack Widths for Reinforcement Materials (2012)

The objective of this project is to determine the allowable concrete crack widths for mitigation of corrosion of reinforcement materials. Corrosion of reinforcing steel is summarily cited as the primary cause of deterioration of concrete waterfront structures. Presently there is renewed debate as to the importance of placing limits on concrete crack size to ensure an acceptable risk against corrosion of the reinforcement. If it can be shown that corrosion of the advanced materials is insignificant for large enough crack sizes, the criteria for long term durability of concrete can be relaxed with significant cost savings.

2013

F13NV04: Cold Spray (2013)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate an alternative to welding for repair of metal components that can provide structural strength as well as corrosion resistance when aging infrastructure assets need replacement. If an option to repair an asset exists rather than having to replace it, significant cost saving can be obtained. The technology will be field tested at Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard for the repair of large corrosion cracks seen on dry dock thimbles. Draft report is 95% complete, and field testing has yielded good performance. Draft report will be completed and submitted for approval.

F13NV06: Solid State Rectifiers (2013)

The project will test and evaluate commercially available solid state rectifiers for efficiency, flexibility in sizing, reliability, and cost savings. Switching power supplies, compared to conventional linear power supplies offer not only higher efficiencies but also offer greater flexibility to the designer. Switch mode power supplies on solid state rectifiers will cut energy consumption by over 30% and comply with overall DoD initiative for increased energy efficiency. Lab testing is currently underway.

F13NV11: Spot Treatment (2013)

This proposal intends to build on previous work for implementation of an Industrial Grade Portable Spray Gun (PSG) manufactured by Graco Inc and Monti’s MBX Bristol Blaster to design a simple yet comprehensive protocol for the spot treatment of Navy fuel infrastructure systems that can be performed in-house by Navy personnel. The end result will be a cost-effective and rapid spot treatment protocol that utilizes the Navy’s required 3-part industrial grade coating system for POL steel structures. Results have been transitioned into an update of UFC 3-190-06, Paints & Coatings Guidebook.

F13NV12: Durable Green Concrete (2013)

This project will demonstrate the utilization of durable green concrete will slow the ingress of chloride ions and propagation of reinforcement corrosion, thereby extending the service life of reinforced concrete facilities. Durable green concrete mixtures use at least 50% fly ash as a partial replacement to portland cement and can be placed with conventional tools and methods. Results have been incorporated into UFGS 03 30 00 Cast-in-Place Concrete and 03 31 29 Marine Concrete, the pending ACI 93-10 document, and keynote presentations at NIST workshop, ACI strategic development conferences, and NAVFAC PWDs China Lake and 29 Palms..

F13NV13: Influence of Moisture on Concrete Repairs (2013)

The main objective of this project is to determine the optimum concrete substrate moisture treatment prior to repair/overlay application to improve bond in composite repair systems. Development and magnitude of interface bond strength and durability greatly depend on concrete substrate surface preparation and condition prior to repair/overlay application with the influence of surface moisture being an issue of significant importance. Based on the test results, practical recommendations for optimum moisture conditioning will be proposed.

F13NV14: Silane Based Penetrating Concrete Sealers (2013)

This project will investigate the effectiveness of silane sealants to mitigate poor diffusion test results for concrete construction utilizing the Marine Concrete UFGS. Of the commercially available concrete sealers, silane based penetrating sealers have reportedly been found to be among the best performers. Silane is a water-repellent sealer that penetrates below the surface of the concrete and embeds within the concrete matrix, decreasing the ability of moisture to penetrate the surface of concrete structures, decreasing the diffusion properties of the concrete, and extending the time before the onset of steel reinforcement corrosion and potentially forestall problems associated with Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR). Report draft is complete and undergoing review.

2014

F14NV10: Durable Concrete Repairs (2014)

The objective of this project is to evaluate newly developed products sold specifically as “anti-corrosion” agents intended for coating reinforcement in concrete restoration projects. Tests will be performed in conjunction with low cost general-purpose coatings that function as barrier coatings isolating corrosion cells. Field testing is currently underway and monitored.

F14NV18: Engineered Fasteners for Coatings (2014)

This project will evaluate the cost effectiveness and long term durability of fasteners with different types of engineered coatings. Various fasteners with engineered coatings will be exposed to salt spray and other laboratory tests to confirm their reported corrosion resistance. They will also be installed in several facilities in differing environments, but primarily in severe environments to verify actual performance in the field from both corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity standpoints. Performance will be compared side by side with commonly used carbon steel, galvanized, brass, and stainless steel fasteners. Where practicable, field installations and laboratory tests will also monitor the impact of mechanical action on corrosion resistance (i.e. installation, removal, and reinstallation). Report has been completed and submitted. ROI to be determined.

2015

F15NV04: Viscous Elastic Coatings (2015)

The main objective of this project is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and long term durability of the viscous elastic coatings (VECs) in the several applications. Where possible, this project will also verify the manufacturer’s claims and determine the product’s limitations. Final report will be finalized and submitted for review.

F15NV06: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Rebar for Concrete Waterfront (2015)

This project will demonstrate the use of internal Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) reinforcement as a replacement of conventional steel reinforcement for concrete structures exposed to the marine environment. Final report is near completion.

F15NV07: Ultra High Performance Concrete (2015)

The main objective of this project is to evaluate the use of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) in areas where its superior properties complement (economically and effectively) structural repairs and normal construction. Not ready for transition. Lab fabrication testing has been unable to replicate the compressive strength of UHPC.

F15NV09: Verifying Effectiveness of Vapor Phase Corrosion Inhibitors for Aboveground Storage Tanks (2015)

This project will demonstrate that the effectiveness of the VCI can be tracked via a “signature-passivity” imparted to carbon steel materials exposed to sufficient VCI to have adsorbed a thin surface layer onto the steel. Field testing is underway.

2016

F16NV05: Water Storage Tank Galvanic Anode Cathodic Protection (2016)

A recently developed cathodic protection control system reportedly automatically provides a constant, IR-Free potential for internal steel water reservoir surfaces using magnesium anodes. This project will evaluate the cost effectiveness and long term durability of the proposed system. The system current flow and water tank protection levels will be monitored during the project period to verify that the system operates as reported. Based on system effectiveness parameters, theoretical longer term system life will be calculated to help evaluate life cycle cost effectiveness. Field testing is underway and being monitored.

2017

F17NV02: Encapsulating Technology of Pipeline Flanges (2017)

This project will evaluate the cost effectiveness and long–term durability of a two–part hybrid polymer encapsulating membrane system from Belzona Polymerics, LTD. Long term corrosion protection is successfully achieved by using the cold-applied brush membrane system Belzona 3411 in conjunction with the corrosion inhibitor base Belzona 8411. This two-part system protects the flanges form moisture as well as galvanic and atmospheric corrosion.

F17NV03: Engineered Cementitous (EEC) Composite for Reinforced Concrete Repairs (2017)

This project will demonstrate the use of ECC repair material both in a laboratory setting and for use on Navy structures. NAVFAC EXWC will perform laboratory and small–scale testing to validate manufacturer reported properties of the ECC material and its ability to reduce cracking when corrosion of embedded steel reinforcement is occurring. NAVFAC EXWC is also planning to partner with NAVFAC South West to perform a demonstration repair project in San Diego, CA. The demonstration project will utilize ECC to repair spalling concrete on a vertical reinforced concrete wall. The demonstration project will be documented and its performance will be periodically monitored by EXWC for long term durability analysis. Lab testing is on–going and being monitored.

F17NV04: Thermal-Diffusion-Galvanized Coatings for Fender Chains (2017)

This project will demonstrate the use of thermal-diffusion-galvanized (TDG) coatings on fender chains both in a laboratory setting and for use in Navy waterfront structures. NAVFAC EXWC is performing laboratory testing by executing accelerated corrosion testing in a salt-fog chamber on both TDG chains and regular hot-dip-galvanized chains to compare their corrosion resistance. In addition, both types of chains have been installed at the test pier at Naval Base Port Hueneme. Both lab and field testing are on-going and periodically monitored. Report is currently being drafted.

F17NV05: Internal Curing of High Performance Pier Deck Concrete (2017)

This project will demonstrate the use of internally cured concrete both in a laboratory setting and for use in Navy pier decks. NAVFAC EXWC will perform laboratory and small–scale testing to validate reported properties of the internally cured concrete and its ability to reduce plastic shrinkage cracking and improve durability properties. NAVFAC EXWC is also planning to partner with the NAVFAC Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) on a demonstration project at a location which has yet to be determined. The demonstration project will be documented and its performance and will be periodically monitored by EXWC for long term durability analysis. Lab testing is on-going.

F17NV06: Corrosion Inhibitor Impregnated Gel for Pipeline Casings (2017)

The project proposes to evaluate the effectiveness of gel material impregnated with corrosion inhibitors to fill the annular space between the casing and the fuel carrier pipe inside of the casing. Field test sites under evaluation.

Army projects
2005

AR-F-311: Measuring the Rate and Impact of Corrosion Damage on DoD Equipment and Installations

The objective of this project is to develop site-specific corrosion data and model the local effect of corrosion on various materials. The project will integrate corrosion rate measurements at various sites based on the innovative Battelle corrosion exposure rack system. This technology will be applied at more than 75 DoD, NASA, and Coast Guard test sites. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-07-18.

AR-F-313: Leak Detection for Pipes at Fort Hood, TX

The objective of this project was to implement leak detection technology on the potable water distribution system. This project used a remotely monitored acoustic sensor that can detect and record characteristic leak signature in water distribution piping. The DoD-developed signal processing discriminates leak signals from background noise and determines the approximate location of leaks. Leak information is used to target and repair areas of worst corrosion first. Application of this technology took place at the residential section at Fort Hood, TX. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-07-19.

AR-F-314: Non-Hazardous Corrosion Inhibitors/SMART Control Systems for Heating and Cooling

The objective of this technology was to implement an improved approach for controlling corrosion, scale, and microbiological growth in boilers and cooling towers. This was accomplished using innovative non-hazardous green chemical treatments and a smart monitoring and control system. The smart monitoring and control system has the capability to self-adjust corrosion inhibitor application based on real time corrosion rates. Control systems were installed at seven cooling towers at Ft. Rucker, AL, eleven cooling towers at Ft. Hood, TX, three cooling towers at Redstone Arsenal, AL, one cooling tower and one boiler system at Brooke Army Medical Center, TX, and two towers and one boiler system at Red River Army Depot, TX. The 20 results from this project have been included in a pending draft re-write of UFGS 23 64 26 Chilled, Chilled-Hot and Condenser Water Piping Systems..

AR-F-317: Pipe Corrosion Sensors at Fort Bragg

The objective of this project was to implement in-situ sensors that continuously monitor potable water corrosivity and piping corrosion. These sensors measure several water quality parameters and assess corrosivity so that water treatment can be tailored to current conditions. In addition, linear polarization resistance sensors measure actual pipe corrosion rates. The data provided by these two sensors help pinpoint problems and the effectiveness of corrosion control can be monitored and quantified. Sensors were installed at critical locations in the water distribution system at Fort Bragg. These sensors can be applied DoD-wide at any installation with a potable water system. They can also be used by the government to provide monitoring and oversight of privatized and contractor-operated water systems. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-07-21.

AR-F-318: Ice-Free Cathodic Protection Systems for Water Storage Tanks at Fort Drum, NY

The objective of this project was to implement ice-free cathodic protection systems to mitigate corrosion inside potable water storage tanks in cold climates. These cathodic protection systems are comprised of ceramic-coated wire anodes and a flotation and support system. This protects these cathodic protections systems from ice damage and the interior of the tank will be continuously protected from corrosion damage. This technology was installed in two elevated water storage tanks at Fort Drum during this project. It can be applied to all DoD elevated water storage tank facilities where ice formation can occur in the winter. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-07-22. Results from this project have been included in UFGS 26 42 15.00 10 Cathodic Protection System-Steel Water Tanks and recently published UFC 3-570-01 Cathodic Protection Design.

AR-F-319: Corrosion Resistance Materials for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants at Fort Bragg, NC (2005)

The objective of this project was to implement advanced materials selection for water and wastewater treatment plants. Advanced materials selection guidelines used at potable water treatment plant and the wastewater treatment plant to provide: (1) alternative composite materials, (2) restoration coatings for deteriorated concrete in filter tanks and flocculation tanks (potable water treatment plant, (3) corrosion resistant metal alloys, (4) and UV resistant protective coatings for steel, such as moisture cured urethanes. This project was implemented at Fort Bragg. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-07-23. Results from this project have been included in UFGS 08 13 73 Sliding Metal Doors.

AR-F-320: Surface Tolerant Coatings for Aircraft Hangars, Flight Control Tower, and Deluge Tanks at Fort Campbell, KY (2005)

The objective of this project was to implement surface tolerant coating technology on steel structures. This technology allows for an overcoat to be applied to an existing deteriorated coating with minimal surface preparation. It included moisture curing polyurethane coating and new fluoropolymer coatings. This technology was applied to one flight tower, two hangars and two deluge tanks at Fort Campbell. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-07-24. Results from this project have been included in UFGS 09 90 00 Paints and Coatings.

AR-F-321: Remote Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Upgrades at Fort Carson, CO (2005)

The objective of this project was to implement remote monitoring and cathodic protection upgrades at Fort Carson. The existing cathodic protection systems were upgraded using new ceramic anodes and drive-by remote monitoring of corrosion-related variables (such as corrosion potentials and current for cathodic protection system rectifiers and test stations. This technology was implemented on five water reservoirs and pipelines: 30 miles of water distribution, 40 miles of natural gas, two miles of natural gas, two miles of fire suppression, and five miles of stream line. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-07-25. Results from this project have been included in UFGS 26 42 15.00 10 Cathodic Protection System-Steel Water Tanks and have been included in the recently published UFC 3-570-01 Cathodic Protection Design.

AR-F-322: Cathodic Protection of Hot Water Storage Tanks Using Ceramic Anodes at Fort Sill, OK (2005)

The objective of this project was to implement technology with the capability to mitigate corrosion that occurs in hot water storage tanks. The technology utilized in this project is comprised of Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) systems that use new ceramic anodes. This project implemented ICCP for six 1,000-3,000 gallon hot water storage tanks and linings and sacrificial anodes for 17 smaller (37-1,000 gallon) hot water tanks and heaters at Fort Sill. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-07-26. Results from this project have been included in the recently published UFC 3-570-01 Cathodic Protection Design.

2006

FAR01: Electro-Osmotic Pulse (EOP) Technology (2006)

The objective of this project is to employ EOP technology to combat water seepage through concrete walls and floor in ammunition storage igloos in an effort to reduce corrosion of munitions and equipment and improve the air quality in ammunition storage igloos. EOP technology mitigates water-seepage problems from the interior of affected areas without excavation. The project was implemented at eleven ammunition storage igloos at Fort A.P. Hill, VA. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-09-23.

FAR02: Smart Fluorescent and Self-Healing Coatings (2006)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate and validate advanced smart-fluorescent and self-healing coating technologies in operational environments. When built into the primer and topcoat, these coating technologies can indicate where the coating has been damaged and self-repair the damaged areas. This project was applied to the Central Vehicle Wash Facility (CVWF) at Fort Bragg, NC. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-09-31. Results from this project have been included in a pending draft re-write of UFGS 09 90 00 Paints and Coatings.

FAR03: Green Water Treatment (2006)

The objective of this project was to design, install and operate environmentally friendly “green”–inhibitor formulations and smart monitoring and control systems. This was done in an effort to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of operating and maintaining heating and cooling towers. Green formulations are biodegradable and nontoxic, can be disposed of safely and inexpensively, and are produced with minimal negative environmental impact. These formulations are biodegradable and nontoxic. They can be disposed of safely and inexpensively, and are produced with minimal negative environmental impact. Green water treatment and smart control were implemented at Fort Wainwright, AK and the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, NY on a total of five heating and eight cooling systems. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-09-28. Results from this project have been included in pending draft re-writes of UFGS 09 90 00 Paints and Coatings and UFGS 23 64 26 Chilled Chilled-Hot and Condenser Water Piping Systems.

FAR04: Remote Corrosion Sensors for Detection of Corrosion on Mission Essential Structures (2006)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate remote corrosion rate sensors. These sensors provide corrosion rate measurements that can reveal areas of structure that need immediate maintenance and which ones will need future maintenance. Because of this, an optimal maintenance schedule can be developed. These corrosion rate sensors are resulted in service life extension of the structure, and lower life cycle cost, due to early detection and correction. This technology was applied to mission critical structure, such as C4ISR facilities and roofing of a motor pool at Okinawa. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-09-30. Results from this project have been included in a pending draft re-write of UFGS 09 90 00 Paints and Coatings.

FAR11: Innovative Thermal Barrier Coatings (2006)

The objective of this project was to apply thermal barrier coatings to piping in heat distribution systems (HDS) manholes in order to prevent heat loss, improve safety for maintenance workings, protect steel piping, and create a less corrosive environment. This project utilized liquid ceramic coating which has been used for over ten years in industrial settings. The coating was applied to newly constructed, bare manhole piping. This technology was applied to ten or more manholes at Fort Jackson, SC. Results from this project have been included in UFGS 33 61 13.19 Valves, Piping and Equipment in Valve Manholes.

FAR13: Coating System for Corrosion Prevention and Fire Resistance for Metal Structures (2006)

The objective of this project was to apply a coating system to metal structures in order to prevent corrosion and provide fire resistance. The performance of the coating system was monitored over a one-year period to validate this technology for use across the DoD. The technology utilized in this project involves new, innovative, epoxy intumescent coatings that contain nano-corrosion inhibitors and can prevent steel from weakening when exposed to high temperatures. These coatings require virtually no maintenance and can withstand extreme environmental conditions. The coating system was applied to one hangar and one additional structure at the Rock Island Arsenal, IL. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-09-29. Results from this project have been included in UFGS 07 81 00 Spray–Applied Fireproofing.

FAR15: Development of Corrosion Indices and Life Cycle Prediction (2006)

The objective of this project is to provide a basis for planning corrosion prevention and control by establishing rates of corrosion and impact of corrosion damage in specific environments. A downloadable software package will use previously collected data on the corrosive effects of different types of environments on equipment and facilities to assign a corrosion index to a given site based on environmental data. The corrosion index will allow the user to select appropriate corrosion resistant materials, coatings, cathodic protection, and water treatment for use in project specifications and maintenance practices. This project will be applicable to all DoD installations. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-09-22. This project has been implemented. The ROI Validation states that this work resulted in linear models of an atmospheric corrosivity rate model based on geographic location. These models have been incorporated into a software package. The models can be run from a PC and allow the user to display corrosion rates/severity levels for locations in the database along with confidence intervals on the results. In addition, the user can calculate corrosion rates for new locations that have not been previously monitored provided that the appropriate weather data are available. The software is available through the DoD CorrDefense website.

FAR16: Corrosion Prevention of Rebar in Critical Facilities (2006)

The objective of this project is to apply concrete rehabilitation migrating corrosion inhibitor and cathodic protection compound to prevent corrosion of rebar and deterioration of concrete in critical facilities. The technology utilized in this project is comprised of a migrating corrosion inhibitor and zinc-rich sacrificial coating that can be sprayed, brushed or rolled onto a concrete surface to protect rebar and mitigate deterioration of concrete. An electrochemical reaction between this compound and steel rebar causes the coating to oxidize slowly over many years while providing corrosion protection to the concrete surface below. This project will be applied to the fuel patrol bridge and a girder ring of a warehouse in Okinawa. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-09-27. Results from this project were used to develop a new UFGS (UFGS 09 97 23.17 Corrosion Inhibitor Coating of Concrete Structures).

FAR20: Ceramic Anode Upgrades (2006)

The objective of this project was to upgrade ceramic anodes in a potable water storage tank and install cathodic protections systems on underground natural pipelines. Installation also included cathodic protection test stations with remote monitoring systems that alert base maintenance personnel of potential problems. These cathodic protection systems consisted of deep well ceramic tubular anodes. They protect surfaces such as the exterior of steel pipes buried in the soil and the interior of potable water storage tanks from corrosion damage. This project was installed on a two million gallon potable water storage tank and underground natural gas distribution piping in the severely corrosive environment at Fort Jackson, SC. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-09-26. Results from this project have been included in UFGS 26 42 15.00 10 Cathodic Protection System-Steel Water Tanks and have been included in the recently published UFC 3-570-01 Cathodic Protection Design.

FAR21: Sustainable Materials Replacement (2006)

The objective of this project was to renovate an existing building with sustainable material systems to document their performance, economic, and environmental benefits. This project utilized commercially available, sustainable building product systems which are more resistant to corrosion and materials degradation than traditional materials. These systems include structural insulated panel wall systems, "green" concrete, high-performance roofing, insulating additives for paints, recycled wood, recycled thermoplastic lumber, recycled carpets, bio-fiber reinforced composites, bio-based cements, hi-performance floor coatings, and synthetic exterior wall claddings. A WWII-era Chapel at Fort Lewis, WA, was to be transformed into an Environmental Education and Conference Center using these materials as a showcase of sustainable materials and design. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-09-25. Results from this project are inconclusive and no criteria updates are recommended.

2007

F07AR01: Corrosion Resistant Non-Metallic Materials for HDS Piping (2007)

The objective of this project was to assess the thermal performance and corrosion condition of two versions of the installed new heat distribution systems (HDS) piping design. The results of this work quantify the working performance of these two versions of the new HDS design for both corrosion resistance and heat loss. For the installation, this will provide an assessment of their direct buried HDS piping. In a larger sense, the results will influence future procurements of HDS piping within DoD. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-11-14. Results from this project have been included in a pending draft re-write of UFGS 33 61 13 Pre-Engineered Underground Heat Distribution System.

F07AR03: Corrosion/Degradation Monitoring Technology for FRP Composites (2007)

The objective of this project is to monitor Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite seismic upgrades at Michie Stadium (West Point) in order to predict their long-term degradation rates, based on short-term non-destructive testing. It is expected that this project will show the utility of composite corrosion/degradation monitoring system as effective real-time monitors of composite patch degradation and de-bonding rates, allowing the prediction of composite lifetime. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-14-09. Results from this project have been included in a pending draft re-write of UFGS 04 01 20.75 Masonry Strengthening Using Surface Applied FRP Composites.

F07AR05: Corrosion Detection and Management System for Potable Water at Fort Drum, NY (2007)

The objective of this project was to provide a developed, full-spectrum computer-based system that has the ability to predict and manage corrosion, and automatically deliver corrosion inhibitors as needed in potable water distribution systems. The system includes a dynamic water distribution system chemical and hydraulic simulation and diagnostic/management system that is interfaced with corrosion sensors and automated chemical injection via a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system (SCADA). The system analyzes the data to provide continuous and automatic, installation-wide, automatic detection and diagnosis of corrosion and water corrosivity problems. This technology is applicable to any DoD installation with a potable water distribution system, including those systems that have been privatized or are operated by contractors. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-16-25.

F07AR07: Advanced Acoustic Leak Detection (2007)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate a low- cost tool to detect corrosion induced leaks in critical portions of fuel distribution piping systems. Sensors were installed to listen for leaks and will transmit a leak status to the collection unit. This project demonstrated a passive acoustic leak detection system that will be permanently installed at Fort Carson. The detection equipment listens for fuel system leaks in approximately 20 critical locations. Training was also provided to installation personnel on the use of the system. Results from this project were recommended for inclusion in UFC 3-460-01 Design: Petroleum Fuel Facilities. The Fuel Facility Engineering Panel discussed this proposed change on February 24, 2011 after performing research on the technology. The Panel's decision is to not include this change in the UFC at this time. The Panel agrees that acoustic leak detection is a viable technology , and will be willing to readdress our decision once it has been thoroughly demonstrated and validated, and has been EPA third party certified.

F07AR08: Rehabilitation of Metal Roofing (2007)

The objective of this project was to examine a rehabilitation technology for corroded metal roofing. The solution to the roofing corrosion problem lies in the use of rehabilitation technology that uses roofing restoration coatings. The roofing rehabilitation coating is a single component, fast-curing polyurea compound formulated for rehabilitation of standing seam metal roofs. This project was applied at Wheeler Army Airfield, Wahiawa, Hawaii. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-12-03. Results from this project have been included in UFC 3-110-03 Roofing and UFC 3 330-02A Commentary on Roofing Systems (canceled and incorporated into UFC 3-110-03).

F07AR10: Long-life Thermal Spray Coatings for Metal Structures (2007)

The objective of this project was to thermally spray two above-ground fuel storage tanks (1 million gallons each) and the associated pipe fixtures at Fort Campbell, KY to produce corrosion-resistant coatings of high thick-nesses and low porosity. These coatings are highly adherent and can protect the steel for more than 25 years. Two different types of spray coatings were used: Ethylene Acrylic Acid (EAA) polymeric coating on the piping fixtures, and zinc-aluminum alloy with a seal-coat on the fuel storage tank itself. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-17-30. Results from this project have been included in a pending draft re-write of UFGS 09 97 13.26 Coating of Steel Waterfront Structures.

F07AR15: Advanced Corrosion Resistant Steel for Fire Suppression Pipeline Rehab (2007)

The objective of this project was to implement innovative corrosion-resistant steel for the rehabilitation of critical utility systems such as fire suppression system pipelines. Judiciously chosen stainless steels, and innovative new steels (for example, a patented new processing technology called "Linterprocessing") creates steel pipe with integral diffuse protective layers for superior corrosion resistant properties compared to regular carbon steel. This project was implemented at a fire suppression pipeline for Chinuwa-1 Fuel Tank Farm in Okinawa, Japan. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-17-13.

F07AR17: Insitu Pipe Coating Technology for Fire Suppression System in Aircraft Hangars at Ft. Drum, NY (2007)

This project will use a liquid epoxy coating to line the interior of the fire suppression pipes at Ft. Drum, NY. Fort Drum has five aircraft hangars with fire suppression systems experiencing extensive corrosion. The fire suppression system in one hangar has only two out of five risers fully functional. The remaining five bays are only partially functional.

F07AR19: Inherently Conductive Additives for Reducing Zinc Dust Content (2007)

The objective of this project was to apply a cathodic corrosion control coating on the exterior surfaces of a 300,000 gallon (42 ft. diameter) elevated water storage tank at Fort Bragg, NC. The main goal of this was to improve reliability and reduce cost of operating and maintaining steel structures by using cathodic corrosion control coatings. This project incorporated two materials that are readily available and can easily be incorporated into epoxy paint formulations as a replacement for zinc dust. Specifications and standards will be developed for implementation of these conductive coating additives as a replacement of zinc-dust at other DoD locations. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-11-42. Results from this project have been included in a pending draft re-write of UFGS 09 97 13.27 Exterior coating of Steel Structures.

2008

F08AR01: Use of Reactive Vitreous-Coatings on Reinforcement Steel to Prevent Failure (2008)

The objective of this project is to address the concrete reinforcements used to support high capacity chillers to provide adequate cooling and humidity control for both worker productivity and corrosion control of electrical mechanical systems. The Army Corps of Engineers laboratory at ERDC-GSL has developed a new reactive silicate bonded to the steel reinforcement with a layer of vitreous enamel (porcelain) simultaneous steel to concrete bond that is 3 to 5 times stronger than the normal bond. This provides a durable glass coating that cannot delaminate and resists chemical attack better than any previous coating. This project will be applied to the foundation for the central high capacity chiller unit for Corpus Christi Army Depot, TX. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-16-14.

F08AR02: Corrosion Resistant Sustainable Self-Cooling Roof and Fiberglass Roof (2008)

The objective of this project is to evaluate advanced roofing technology application to help prevent corrosion. This project will address a corrosion problem that ranks in the top 25 highest contributors to the cost of corrosion. This project will utilize a self-cooling roof that employs corrosion resistant coatings with "cool" pigments and uses an innovative ventilation system to reduce exposure to hot moist air. Also, fiberglass reinforced polymer roofs, which contains a fluoroplastic dispersion protective layer to protect against ultraviolet degradation. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-13-07.

F08AR06: In-Situ Coatings for Steel Pilings (2008)

The objective of this project is to show the utility of repairing steel sheet pilings in various states of corrosion. The project will implement a coating technology that can be applied by a limpet/mobile cofferdam, which creates free access to the site. Through inspection, this optimum maintenance and repair works of steel surfaces below water in the dry, while minimizing disturbance to harbor activities. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-17-35.

F08AR07: Composite Wrapping and Cathodic Protection (CP) for Pilings at Kawaihae Harbor, HI (2008)

The objective of this project is to institute a hybrid system incorporating reinforced polymer composite wrapping in which ceramic anodes are included. After surveying design requirements and with Hawaii DPW approval (and Navy coordination as their part of the project), the composite wrap and CP system will be integrated and installed for full-scale demonstration and load and durability (corrosion resistance) testing. Laboratory testing and system modeling will be performed by both ERDC-CERL and NFEXWC/NAVFAC-Pacific. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-13-06.

F08AR13: Remote Monitoring of Degradation of Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites (2008)

The objective of this project is to install wireless sensors and monitor the durability performance of a thermoplastic composite I-beam bridge. This project will also demonstrate and validate remote monitoring strain sensors and acoustic emission sensors on fracture critical steel bridges. This project will utilize thermoplastic I-beam designs and remote strain sensors. This will be accomplished through laboratory tests and monitoring, field sensor demonstrations and monitoring, and field load testing of materials and bridge structures. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-11-43.

F08AR14: Photovoltaic Cells for Cathodic Protection (CP) of Pipes and Tanks (2008)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the utility of cathodic protection of pipes and tanks from corrosion powered by photovoltaic cells. Implementation of this project will involve an initial assessment of pipes and tanks, identification of pipes and tanks which need cathodic protection, installation of photovoltaic cells powering cathodic protection, and a follow up inspection of installation at Pohakuloa Training Area, HI. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-14-03. Results from this project have been included in the recently published UFC 3-570-01 Cathodic Protection Design.

F08AR23: Electro-Osmotic Pulse (EOP) and Dehumidification Technologies in Ammunition Bunkers (2008)

The objective of this project is to eliminate water and high humidity in ammunition storage magazines, eliminate corrosion and equipment problems and potential problems associated with water intrusion and humidity in magazines, and improve the air quality within the magazines. This project will compare the effectiveness of dehumidification alone to keep the magazine dry and the interior air moisture between 40 percent and 50 percent with the effectiveness of EOP to do the same tasks and to compare the effectiveness of using both technologies together in the same magazine.

F08AR24: Electro-kinetic Remediation of Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) in Concrete Pavements (2008)

The objective of this project is to eliminate pavement expansion and deterioration as a result of alkali silica reaction (ASR), extend the life of existing pavements, and reduce maintenance costs to maintain operational capability at the airfield. This project will utilize moisture sensors–which will be installed in the pavements to record changes in humidity–to verify the moisture reduction. Any changes in the pore ion content will also be monitored as an indicator of potential ASR activity. An Electro-Osmotic Pulse (EOP) system will be installed in 15,000 square feet of taxiway at Campbell, Kentucky.

2009

F09AR02: Corrosion Resistant Fences and Railings (2009)

The objective of this project is to address severe corrosion on physical security fencing for restricted areas in coastal and tropical environments where the atmosphere is humid and laden with salt. Four types of fencing materials will be tested: (1) galvanized steel coated with fuse bonded PVC, (2) stainless steel with 18% Chromium -8% nickel by weight (AISI 304 alloy), (3) Galfan fencing comprised of a coating of 5% aluminum - 95% zinc by weight ( which is metallurgically bonded to the steel core), (4) and fiberglass fencing. The corrosion rates of each of the four types of fencing materials will be compared with a new installed 50 foot section of the currently used galvanized steel fencing at Torii Station, U.S. Army Garrison, Okinawa. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-15-29.

F09AR03: Robust Heat Distribution System (HDS) Manhole Sensors (2009)

The objective of this project is to implement sensors with the ability to withstand of extreme heat and humidity for extended periods of time for the purpose of remote monitoring of heat distribution system manhole conditions in order to assure timely repair response. The sensors for this project monitor the ambient temperature and water level in heat distribution system (HDS) manholes. These are variables that lead to corrosive conditions. The sensor technology will be demonstrated and validated at Fort Carson, CO. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-16-02.

F09AR04: Corrosion Resistant Roofs with Integrated Sustainable Photovoltaic Power Systems (2009)

This project evaluated the use of a self-adhering, thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology applied to a new aluminum-zinc coated standing-seam metal roof (SSMR) with a high-performance coating. The demonstration took place at Kilauea Military Camp (KMC), HI, which has a uniquely corrosive environment due to the periodic presence of volcanic gases. It also has high electric utility costs and limited grid capacity. The corrosion performance of the roof and PV solar array was evaluated by periodic visual examination, onsite atmospheric coupon testing, and accelerated weathering laboratory tests of material coupons. Sensors were also installed at the interface between the PV membrane and roofing material, mounted in outdoor exposure at the site, to record any developing signs of corrosion. After a year in service, the PV appliqué modules were found to have no deleterious effect on the new SSMR, and the PV system performed as expected. However, due to the high first-costs related to procuring the thin-film PV components, the 30 year return on investment (ROI) ratio was only 0.19. No transition is planned. Although the system is not economical enough to warrant Army-wide implementation, it may be specified in individual cases where energy sustainability is a higher priority than ROI. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-14-01. This project was not implemented. No transition is planned. The demonstration results indicate that thin-film PV technology is an effective means of generating electrical power in locations where direct solar radiation is available during most of the year. However, system costs at the time of the demonstration were too high for thin-film PV collectors to be considered cost effective, even over 30 years in an area with high electric utility costs. The original ROI was 19.55 and was based on implementation of the standing seam roof with the thin-film PV technology installed on 300 buildings. The original ROI also assumed $200K per year in damage to the building interior due to a leaky roof; this was determined to be an unreasonable assumption and was removed from the recalculation. The recalculated ROI value for the PV system is 0.19 and is based on one building. At present, the cost/benefit ratio of this technology does not justify immediate Army-wide or DoD-wide adoption.

F09AR05A: Novel Additive for Concrete Structures Exposed to Salt Environments (2009)

The objective of this project is to develop a concrete material that resists crumbling from the effects of seawater, surf and wave erosion for concrete structures that are exposed to salt–water environments. Hycrete, the proposed material, is a hydrophobic concrete intended to bind the stones of seawalls and similar structures together and prevent sea water and chlorides from penetrating into the concrete. The technology has been requested by the U.S. Army Garrison, Hawaii, Directorate of Public Works, to help repair the PARC sea wall and prevent damage to constructed facilities

*This project was congressionally funded. No OSD Funding. OSD Oversight only).

F09AR5B: Integral Waterproofing for Concrete Structures, Research, Development, Evaluation and Demonstrations at IMCOM Facilities (2009)

The objective of this project is to provide waterproofing for all military construction where water migration through the concrete impacts the life and durability of the constructed facility–especially those concrete and reinforced concrete facilities in coastal zones. Hydrophobic concrete will be used to reduce water transport through the concrete wall panels and to prevent chlorides from attacking the reinforcement. The proposed hydrophobic concrete material is Hycrete. Facilities will be constructed at an Army and an Air Force installation using Hycrete additive incorporated into the concrete. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-17-11. (Congressionally funded project/No OSD Funding/OSD Oversight only).

F09AR07: Structural Health and Degradation Indices for Bridges (2009)

Structural Health Monitoring of bridges is used to evaluate the current condition of an existing structure and to detect changes such as crack growth, increased corrosion rates, or changes in bridge response to load. Several remote monitoring technologies will be used in the development of the indices, including corrosion rate, strain, displacement, vibration, tilt, and acoustic emissions. Fort Sill Department of Public Works (DPW) and Fort Leonard Wood DPW have given a commitment to use two out-of-service bridges, one at each installation, as a test bed in coordination with this proposed CPC project.

F09AR08: High-Voltage Capacitor Based Water Treatment for Corrosion, Scale and Biological Growth (2009)

This project demonstrated and validated a high-voltage capacitance-based water-treatment system for chilled-water cooling systems. This emerging nonchemical technology, marketed as the Zeta Rod Water Management System, was shown to inhibit mineral scaling and biofouling in chilled-water systems without the need to use hazardous chemicals, including those typically applied to counteract the corrosive effects of conventional treatment chemicals. Demonstration results showed that this nonchemical water-treatment system effectively prevents corrosion, scaling, and biofouling in open-loop evaporative cooling towers using a wide range of makeup water chemistries (alkaline to acidic). It also can reduce system water usage by 20% because fewer blowdown cycles are needed to purge impurities, supporting DoD net zero water objectives for installations. A return-on-investment ratio of 3.37 was calculated. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL-TR-14-15. . This project has been implemented based on the publishing of interim implementation guidance. The following impacted criteria document was identified: UFGS Section 23 25 00, Chemical Treatment of Water for Mechanical Systems. HQUSACE published interim implementation guidance in Engineering and Construction Bulletin ECB 2012-10, Non-Chemical Treatment of Cooling Tower Water (3 April 2012). It was effective for two years and expired on 3 April 2014. The update to the Unified Facilities revised criteria document listed above will be submitted to HQ USACE (CECW-CE) for inclusion in the criteria update cycle.

F09AR10: Improved Zinc Dust Primer and Coating System for Steel Structures (2009)

The objective of this project is to provide an anticorrosion coating primer with improved performance and durability that provides the ability to retard the spread of corrosion at discontinuities such as pinholes, holidays or breaks in coatings. This coating system is based on paint additives designed to inhibit corrosion by forming both a high-quality barrier film and a cathodic protection coating that does not require the high pigment loading of a traditional zinc-rich primer. A product formulated with this coating system will be selected to coat the exterior surfaces of a steel structure, such as a potable water tank at Wheeler AAF, HI.

F09AR12: New Generation of Corrosion Resistant Fire Hydrant Retrofits (2009)

The objective of this project is to provide reliable corrosion resistant fire hydrants at DoD facilities. The system that will be utilized in this project, The Davidson System retrofit, will replace corrosion prone stems and other internal components will with new generation stainless steel stems and inner workings that are corrosion-resistant. This retrofit will be demonstrated on existing fire hydrants at Ft. Leonard Wood, TX. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-13-20.

F09AR13: State of the Art Reinforcing Bar for Concrete Structures (2009)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate reinforcing bar technologies for prevention of corrosion of reinforcing bars in concrete structures exposed to alkaline or other highly corrosive environments. Two technologies will be assessed: (1) MMFX 2, a novel reinforcing steel that is low in carbon, chromium, and micro-composite steel; (2) Nuovinox™ ('NX') is a stainless steel clad composite product with a carbon steel core. The technology has been requested by the U.S. Garrison Hawaii to help reduce their maintenance and replacement costs of their sea wall and other coastal concrete structures. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-17-39.

F09AR14: Innovative Corrosion Resistant Coatings and Materials for Pumps (2009)

The objective of this project is to provide corrosion resistant steel housings and advanced metallic coating systems on new water pumps for wash facilities. The technology utilized in this project involves coating pump impellors and housings with a cobalt-based alloy called “Stellite” using the High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF) process. Corrosion resistant pumps will be installed and evaluated at Fort Polk, LA. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-16-10.

F09AR16: Lightweight Fiber Reinforced (Thermoset) Polymer Composite Bridge Decks (2009)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and validate state-of-the-art and emerging innovative technology approaches for rehabilitating failed concrete bridge decks using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite systems. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bridge deck systems are systems of composite materials that are pre-engineered and fabricated in manufacturing facilities. The materials have high strength and stiffness achieved by using environmentally resistant vinyl ester or polyester resin reinforced with E-glass fibers. An existing roadway bridge at Redstone Arsenal having a steel girder substructure that has a reinforced concrete deck experiencing severe corrosion of the steel reinforcement will be selected for this demonstration. The concrete deck will be demolished and replaced with a corrosion resistant prefabricated lightweight FRP composite bridge deck and wearing surface. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-16-16 and contractor's supplemental report ERDC/CERL CR-16-03.

F09AR17: Dilute Flowable Backfill Validation for Corrosion Mitigation of Buried Piping (2009)

The objective of this project is to reduce corrosion of underground pipe systems due to corrosive soil by using a high pH value dilute flowable backfill to entirely encase buried piping. Flowable backfill is a low compressive strength concrete that is designed to reduce pipe corrosion. This technology will be implemented and evaluated at Ft. Hood, TX. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-15-33.

2010

F10AR01: Corrosion Resistant Coatings for Air Conditioning Coils (2010)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate and validate high-efficiency, cost effective coatings to protect chillers and air conditioning coils and fins and vehicle condenser evaporator coils and fins from corrosion. This project utilized a cathodic polymeric electro coat (e-coat) technology for corrosion protection of heat transfer surfaces. The outcome was the elimination of corrosion and corrosion products in air conditioning coils in Hawaii and condenser evaporators in vehicles. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-15-12. Updates to UFC 3-410-01 FA Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning, and TM 5-810-1 Mechanical Design Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning, will be prepared and submitted based on project results.

F10AR02: Innovative High-Performance Concrete Floor Sealants (2010)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate fluid-applied concrete coating/sealant using nanoparticles of ceramics, industrial grade diamond, silver, and glass. These nanoparticles were custom blended in a solution of water or alcohol for the surface to be treated. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-15-09.

F10AR04: New Mold Mitigation Technology for Buildings (2010)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate a novel approach to mold and fungus management that will mitigate both the medical biohazard and the biodegradation of structural materials, finishes, and furnishings. Three antimicrobial coatings/surface treatments have been selected for demonstration under this project to protect construction materials from premature degradation due to mold and decay fungi growth while protecting the health of building occupants. This project will be implemented at Ft. Polk, LA. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-17-19. Results from this project are inconclusive and no criteria updates are recommended.

F10AR06: Accelerating Natural Cementation for Road Stabilization (2010)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and validate an emerging state-of-the-art innovative technology for stabilizing the surfaces of unpaved road using alkali-activated glassy silicates and silicate-rich by products. This project will demonstrate the use of natural glasses such as volcanic ash and glassy byproducts such as ground slag and fly ash reacted with sodium carbonates, silicates, and lime to make a hard, dust-free road surface. This technology is applicable to unpaved roads and other traffic areas on all DoD facilities

F10AR07: Moisture Control Using Intelligent Single-Well Electro-osmotic Dewatering Systems (2010)

This objective will be a field demonstration of the use of the Morefield, McInerney, Hock et al. patent (U.S. Patent 7,135,102, Nov. 14, 2006). This technology uses electrodes distributed on a single non-conductive well casing to produce a directed current into the soils surrounding the well and produce dewatering without the installation of multiple electrodes.

F10AR08: Vinyl Paint for Cold Locations (2010)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the performance of a new coating system for steel structures. This coating technology will provide military installations with improved options for selecting low-maintenance, high-durability coating materials that require less frequent application and, therefore, less disruption of military vehicle traffic associated with repainting operations. This project will be demonstrated on Bailey Bridge during cold temperatures. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-14-10.

F10AR12: Corrosion-Resistant Bonding Enamel-Coated Steel Fixtures in Masonry Wall Construction (2010)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate a prototype application of new glass-ceramic coated hardware for use in brick/block masonry construction. This new coating contains a reactive calcium silicate layer that reacts with the water in surrounding mortar to produce a hardware/mortar bond that is typically two to three-times stronger than the bond between mortar to bare steel. The glass enamel coating on the steel also protects the hardware from corrosion. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-16-23.

F10AR13: Intelligent, Nano-Technology Sol-Get Corrosion Sensor System (2010)

The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the use and benefits of an intelligent, sol-gel based corrosion sensor embedded with nano-/micro-electronics. It also demonstrated the innovative sensor system as part of structural health monitoring system on Government Bridge, Rock Island Arsenal, IL. The sol-gel sensor underwent both lab and field testing.

2011

F11AR08: Portable Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Coating Sensor (2011)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and validate the benefits of a coating health monitoring system (CHMS) based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS is a proven technique to measure the condition of a coating which, before now, was mainly used for laboratory investigations in immersion service. Advances in electronics and miniaturization of components now bring this technique to the field. This innovative portable health monitoring system will add a useful tool for condition-based management of coatings on critical facilities and structures. The sensor is capable of mobile communications for virtual monitoring and inspection. The portable EIS coating health monitoring device will be used to measure coating conditions of coatings implemented under past CPC Projects at Fort Bragg, NC (storage tanks, piping, aircraft hangers, and roofing), Fort Lewis, WA (roofing and water tank) and Wheeler Army Airfield, HI (roofing).

F11AR24: Concrete Liner System (2011)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and validate an innovative corrosion prevention and control technology for wastewater treatment plants. This multi-layered polymeric lining system is designed for manhole, wet well structures and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) structures. These layers work together to form a multi-layer stress-skin panel that will extend the service life of the materials. This technology will be tested on components of the wastewater treatment plant at Ft. Lewis, Washington. Candidate surfaces include concrete walls of digesters, grit chambers, and head-works. The results will be documented in a technical report, and applicable guide specifications and criteria documents will be updated to facilitate DoD-wide implementation. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-16-05.

F11AR25: Missile Storage Facility (2011)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the capability of dehumidification technology to reduce the relative humidity enough to extend the mission readiness of sensitive critical missile systems in long term storage in tropical and other hot, humid locations used for forward positioning. This project will be implemented at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa.

2012

F12AR01: Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite 3D Grid (2012)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and validate state-of-the-art and emerging innovative technology approaches for rehabilitating failed steel reinforced concrete structures using a fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite 3-D grid as the reinforcing element for the concrete. Because FRP composites are not susceptible to the corrosion, they can last longer than conventional steel reinforced concrete materials in this highly demanding application. This technology is applicable to bridges throughout the Tri-Services. This technology will be demonstrated on a roadway bridge at Fort Knox, KY. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-16-21 and contractor's supplemental report ERDC/CERL CR-16-04.

F12AR03: Assured Impressed Current Corrosion Protection (2012)

The corrosion of ferrous structures (e.g., piping and storage tanks) is a significant and ongoing expense on Army and Department of Defense (DoD) installations. Corrosion is the number one cause of damage to industrial waste lines, potable water distribution lines, heat distribution piping, and underground fuel storage tanks. The proposed CPC demonstration will develop a standardized technology consisting of (1) a field-portable instrument that can be expediently used to collect essential electrical potential and current data and (2) software capable of analyzing and then extrapolating the data to give a fast and accurate representative estimate of the structure’s ultimate equilibrium polarization. Six water towers at Ft. Leonard Wood will be tested for CP using the prototype device that is created. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-16-20. The potential applicability of this technology has been demonstrated, but further development is necessary before any criteria updates can be recommended.

F12AR06: 2-Coat High-Performance Coating System (2012)

Two different two-coat coating systems were applied to exterior-exposed steel structures located at Ft. Bragg, North Carolina. By eliminating the labor and materials required for the application of an intermediate coat, significant savings can be realized. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-16-27.

F12AR11: Corrosion Inhibitive Organic-Based Dust Palliatives (2012)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate and validate the benefits of a unique soil binder (RhEPS) in combination with organic humectants for dust control. From a safety standpoint, helicopter brownouts are an immediate concern and inhalation from repeated exposure to siliceous and other fine dust may pose delayed health problems for personnel. Maintenance costs due to dust damage to vehicles and the corrosive salts used to control dust on roads are significant. Also, fugitive dust transported by wind from Army installations may be a concern for nearby residents, civilian and military.

F12AR12: Self-Repairing Coating (2012)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate and validate the benefits of an innovative self-repairing polyurethane coating for infrastructure application. This self-repairing mechanism is based on the incorporation of reactive functional groups within the polymer network. The technology was applied to hangar doors that are subject to mechanical abuse at the Corpus Christi Army Depot, TX.

F12AR14 Vapor-Phase Coatings (2012)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate and validate the benefits of a coating that incorporates a vapor-phase corrosion inhibitor (VCI). A VCI in a coating prohibits corrosion at both the cathodic and anodic sites on steel by stabilization of the primary oxide film. A VCI coating can be applied to both concrete and steel surfaces. The vapor phase coating were applied to hangar doors that are subject to mechanical abuse at the Corpus Christi Army Depot, TX.

F12AR15 Hybrid Composite Bridge Beams (2012)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and validate hybrid composite bridge beams. Corrosion of steel is the major cause for deterioration of both steel and reinforced concrete bridge beams. Hybrid composite beams combine the strength and stiffness of conventional concrete and steel with the lightweight and corrosion advantages of advanced composite materials. The hybrid composite beam will be demonstrated on an existing roadway bridge at Fort Knox that is experiencing severe corrosion. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-16-22 and contractor's supplemental report ERDC/CERL CR-16-05.

2014  (Note: No Projects were Funded for FY13; F13AR10 was canceled)

F14AR03: Calcium Sulfonate Coating for Crevice Corrosion (2014)

The objectives of this project are to demonstrate and validate the benefits of a high ratio co-polymerized calcium sulfonate coating system to arrest corrosion in problem crevice areas on steel structures. Data collected over the course of the project will be analyzed to validate the ROI and develop engineering guidance (e.g., UFGS and UFC) for the use of the calcium sulfonate coating system for the corrosion protection of steel structures at DoD installations. Lessons-learned and guidance developed as part of this project will be implemented in ACSIM’s Installation Design Standards Process.

F14AR05: Geopolymer Nano-Ceramic Liner System (2014)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate geopolymer nano-ceramic mortar liner system on storm water piping/culverts at Fort Bragg. The project design and benefits analyses will be used to develop or modify engineering guidance (e.g., Unified Facilities Guide Specifications – UFGS and Unified Facilities Criteria – UFC) for the use of Geopolymer Liner System in infrastructure rehabilitation and repair at DoD installations. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-17-27.

F14AR07: Polymer Concrete Pipe (2014)

The objectives of this project are to: (1) demonstrate emerging corrosion-resistant polymer concrete material used in sewer pipe and manholes, (2) evaluate and document the performance of these emerging polymer concrete products and compare to conventional concrete products on a life cycle basis, (3) document the results in a technical report for public release along with suggested guide specification changes to facilitate incorporation of the piping, where appropriate.

2015

F15AR01: Advanced Materials For Improved Degradation Resistance For Semi- Permanent Buildings (2015)

The main focus of this proposal is the prevention of material degradation of semi-permanent buildings or structures such as B-Huts. Easily-applied adherent membranes, specifically designed for extreme weather conditions can be applied to the walls of the building to circumvent these problems. Degradation-resistant membranes are currently available commercially but it is not known which will perform to the required level with cost factored into the equation. Cost and time can be saved by installation on site but it is not known if the technology will perform over the lifetime of the structures to the level required.

F15AR03: Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites for Water Control Structures (2015)

The objectives of this project are to demonstrate the use of custom designed high-performance fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) thermoplastic and thermoset composite materials on a spillway dam structure at Fort Bragg, NC. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) based thermoplastic and vinyl ester-based thermoset composites have recognized durability is water immersion and outdoor exposures to the elements.

F15AR04: Polyurea Coating (2015)

The objective of this project is to evaluate a polyurea coating/liner technology. The benefits of implementing a polyurea coating include chemical resistance, restoration of structures to like-new operating conditions, longer service lives, reduced maintenance requirements and costs, added safety, and reduced disruption in the service the structure provides. The project is documented in technical report ERDC/CERL TR-17-23.

F15AR08: Carbon Fiber Cables (2015)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and validate the performance of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite cables (CFCC) on a concrete bridge avoiding the corrosion problems normally associated with the use of steel cable reinforcements. Carbon fiber polymer composite cables will be used to rebuild an existing severely deteriorated steel multi-beam bridge structure at Lake Sutton, West Virginia. Corrosion of steel strands and reinforcement is one of the major reasons the structural integrity of steel reinforced concrete bridges is compromised before the bridges reach their full life span. The viable solution to eliminate the corrosion related problems associated with conventional pre-stressed and reinforced concrete bridges is the application of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials.

2016

F16AR09: Thermoplastic Composite Bridging Application in Extreme Environments (2016)

The objectives of this project are to address these unknowns by demonstrating and validating the performance of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)-based thermoplastic composites in bridge applications for infrastructure and field military use. This includes permanent bridges on fixed Installations as well as field, mobile Army /DoD bridging applications. Performance will be determined for long-term applications in very hot climates and very cold climates. Material response to ballistic and fire scenarios will also be assessed. Design and testing of a qualified guard rail system and fatigue testing of the bridge deck to qualify to FHWA and AASHTO standards will also be performed.

F16AR10: Concrete Tank Repair Kwajalein (2016)

The objectives of this project are to demonstrate and validate an approach to repair and mitigate corrosion damage in reinforced concrete tanks in a severely corrosive environment. The water storage tanks on USAG-KA are in a deleterious state with severe cracking of the tank walls with sporadic spalling of the reinforced concrete. Working with the USAG-KA DPW, this project will utilize a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite wrapping system along with an elastomeric internal liner to provide external reinforcement as well as mitigation and prevention against further corrosion.

2017

F17AR03: Rehabilitation of Deteriorated Wood Railroad Ties Using Inorganic Polymers (2017)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and validate the use of an innovative geo-polyme material to rehabilitate wooden railroad cross ties that have deteriorated beyond safe use.

F17AR04: Degradation–Resistant Polyolefin Plastic Lumber Foundation System For Temporary Structures (2017)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and validate the benefits of using commercially-available plastic lumber materials for foundations for Army relocatable structures.

Additional CPC Research Projects

Characterization of MIC Organisms in In-Ground Fuel Storage Tanks (AFRL/RXAS)

In-ground jet fuel storage tanks are known to become contaminated with microbes. A subset of these microbes may be capable of causing corrosion, known as microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). Using Applied Research (6.2) in-house funding, AFRL is characterizing the microbial population in fuel tanks from corrosive vs. non-corrosive environments, to determine if there is a causative relationship between certain species and MIC. The results of this study will influence the design of materials and sensors to mitigate causative agents. See Air Force Research Laboratory , April 12, 2017 for more information.

Bio-Deterioration of Materials in Biofuels: Evaluation and Research (BOMBER) Program (AFRL/RXAS)

The material susceptibility of fuel infrastructure materials exposed to alternative fuels was previously evaluated by AFRL/RXAS. Jet fuels are known to be susceptible to microbial growth, and newly certified alternative fuels support a different microbial population than those found in Jet A or JP-8. It is also known that microbes can cause deterioration of polymers and metals. Using Applied Research (6.2) in-house funding, AFRL is evaluating the susceptibility of fuel infrastructure materials, including those used in in-ground fuel storage tanks, to microbial populations found in contaminated alternative fuel blends. Microbial biofilms moved from bio-deteriorated materials will be evaluated for their microbial content, to determine which microbes cause damage to a particular material. The results of this study will inform the AF of potential impacts due to the introduction of alternative fuels. (Characterization of MIC Organisms and BOMBER Programs sections provided by Air Force). See Air Force Research Laboratory , April 12, 2017 for more information.

Floating Double–Deck Hybrid (Modular Hybrid Pier) (ONR/NAVFAC) (Final Report No. TDS-NAVFAC EXWC-CI-1223) (2013)

The Floating Double Deck Pier (FDDP) developed a pier design that could be built offsite, deployed and be assembled on site, disassembled and be redeployed again. As the project progressed, the goal was to develop a floating double deck pier that is modular, reconfigurable, minimize piling by over 60%, reduce seafloor footprint by over 50% and provide a 100-year service life for waterfront concrete structures to reduce maintenance, construction, and demolition costs. In order to accomplish that goal, a broad array of corrosion related challenges had to be addressed and resolved.

Achieving a 100-year service life is a function of quality aggregate, mixture design, and concrete cover. Examples of corrosion prevention lessons learned include the founding shaft, which replaces piles for structural stability, is dipped in a passivated bath and cathodic protection is utilized to protect the submerged surfaces of the shaft regardless of the material choice. The secondary shaft steel pipe pile that was driven into the seafloor pipe pile was coated with a corrosion-preventing glass flake epoxy (developed by NAVFAC EXCC) and passively cathodically protected by two 93-pound aluminum anodes. The Test Bed was also outfitted with current flux and voltage potential sensors that have the capability to monitor corrosion behavior and protection of electrically isolated post-tensioning hardware, other concrete reinforcement, and the founding shafts. The electrical resistivity of well cured high volume fly ash concrete is considerably less than required to prevent corrosion of the reinforcing steel.

The following technologies were transitioned as a result of FDDP:

  • High Strength Light Weight Concrete (HSLWC): Concrete mixture used 33% Class F fly ash as a partial replacement for Portland cement. Pre– and post–stressed reinforcement in two directions to ensure crack closure. UFGS 03 31 29 Marine Concrete changes now allow use of slag and fly ash at 50% replacement to Portland cement.

  • Service Life Modeling: NAVFAC EXWC developed a novel methodology to predict the long-term service life of marine concrete using state-of-the-art multi-mechanistic finite element software, STADIUM®. DCPO Project F10NV10 demonstrated this technology. Other projects that benefited from the methodology predicting service life (STADIUM®) include Navy FDDP, many piers, dry docks, and wharves as well as the third lock of the Panama Canal, U.S. Department of State facilities, and various public works and commercial projects.

  • Major changes to UFGS 03 31 29 Marine Concrete were implemented to allow users to specify performance of the structures in terms of service life and the tools provided to verify during construction.

  • Designing structures using the guidelines provided in UFGS 03 31 29 Marine Concrete will result in greater readiness and more sustainable development, as corrosion of the steel is the number one cause of premature failure of reinforced concrete in marine environments.

The FDDP project was supplemented with D, CPO funds for corrosion monitoring in FY06 (Project FNV04 Modeling of Advanced Waterfront Materials) and for the use of high volume fly ash in concrete in FY09 (Project F09NV07 High Volume Fly Ash Concrete).

ASTM Code and Specification Changes

The waterfront research discussed in the previous paragraphs resulted in changes being made to ASTM A934/A934M-07 Standard Specification for Epoxy-Coated Prefabricated Steel Reinforcing Bars. NAVFAC EXWC (Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center) lead an ASTM International subcommittee to develop a new industry standard for fusion-bonded epoxy-coated steel reinforcement–which was tailored to provide extended service life for Navy waterfront structures. Coated steel does not provide an adequate replacement for good design and placement of quality concrete with appropriate concrete cover. When a contractor fails to use good concrete and proper cover, which often happens, the use of fusion bonded steel reinforcement has proven itself to extend the service life of the structure significantly.

Alkali–Silica Reaction Mitigation State–of–the–Art (ASR) Research (NAVFAC) (Technical Report TR-2195-SHR) (2001)

The objective of Alkali Silica Reactivity (ASR) Research is to develop a fundamental understanding of what causes ASR in concrete and how it can be mitigated. The EXWC is working with three research institutions (two universities and one private) this year to establish acceptable limits for extended performance of concrete.

A larger test sample can show that an aggregate is reactive even after a smaller test sample may show that it is not. ASR can be mitigated with the use of Class F Fly Ash and other natural pozzolans. As a result of this research several papers have been submitted for peer reviewed publications. The results was also used to refine the expansion limits in specifications.

The following criteria incorporated the research results:

  • UFGS 32 13 13.03 (formerly 02751N), Airfields and Heavy-Duty Concrete Pavement Less Than 10,000 Cubic Yards
  • UFGS 32 13 11 (formerly 02753), Concrete Pavement for Airfields and Other Heavy- Duty Pavements More Than 10,000 Cubic Yards
  • UFGS 31 62 13.20 (formerly 02450), Precast/Pre-stressed Concrete Piles
  • High Performance Airfield Pavements–JSF Pavements (ONR/NAVFAC) (2013)

    High Performance Airfield Pavements (HPAP) research was executed with the intent to develop a material that would be able to sustain the elevated temperatures and pressures that a Joint Strike Fighter would subject a pavement to during a vertical landing (VL). After one vertical landing, asphalt pavements melt and current concrete airfield pavements have a high probability of spalling.
    A concrete mixture can be produced which can sustain more than 500 simulated vertical landing cycles. The concrete needs to have aggregates formed at high temperatures and fibers, with a topical sodium silicate coating once the concrete has cured. Several proprietary materials have also been tested and shown capable of withstanding the high temperatures and pressures.
    Thus far information has been transitioned to three different bases with five vertical landing pads and a simulated carrier deck.

    • Concrete mixes with two different lightweight aggregates have been made
    • A concrete mix with a Basalt Trap Rock will used by the end of FY13
    • At MCAS Yuma the VL pad is currently being used by AV-8B aircraft prior to the arrival of the JSF
    • See UFGS 32 13 11 (11/2015) Concrete Pavement for Airfields and other Heavy-Duty Pavements

    PAVER

    Micro PAVER software is a pavement management program that complies with ASTM D6433 and ASTM D5340. These standards provide information in identifying all types of pavement distresses and calculate pavement condition. These pavement distresses can be grouped into three groups; Climate, Structural, and Other related distresses. The climate related distresses provide information about pavements corroding due to weather and/or oxidation of asphalt pavements. Micro Paver can be used to identify the best pavement candidates for global surface treatments to mitigate further degradation of the pavements; thus preserving and extending the life of the pavements. In the GSB-88 Study done by NAVFAC EXWC, Micro PAVER was used to identify pavements sections to apply GSB 88 and measure the increase of pavement condition, which translate an increase life of the pavements. See Sustainment Management System Software for more information.

    Ceramic–Coated Anode (2004)

    ERDC developed a breakthrough mixed metal oxide (MMO) ceramic-coated anode design as an alternative to silicon-iron and graphite anodes. This patented design makes corrosion protection available at one-half the life-cycle cost for previous technologies, and its smaller size permits installation in every application within the cathodic protection (CP) industry. These anodes feature a unique arc-plasma sprayed surface architecture, which makes them the most abrasion-resistant MMO anode available. See Manual EM 1110-2-2704 dated 12 July 2004 for more details.

    Recycled Plastic Lumber (2008)

    Recycled Plastic Lumber materials from high-density polyethylene are inherently resistant to degradation of moisture, rot, and insects. Working with industry and academic partners, ERDC led development of seven ASTM standard test methods and specifications. These materials have been used in ERDC-led demonstrations for 15 years, with each one advancing the performance and developing new applications - the most recent of which was a bridge design that could support an M1 Abrams tank. DCPO Project F08AR12 was utilized to demonstrate this technology. F12 funding had been received from USACE to develop criteria supporting the use of this technology

    Corrosion–Resistant Reinforcing Steel (2008 and 2010)

    ERDC developed and pioneered the use of reinforcing steel that is coated with a special glass enamel coating which consists of an inner layer of alkali-resistant glass with a layer of Portland cement fused to the outer surface. This patented coating consistently triples the bond strength between concrete and steel, prevents corrosion of steel, extends life of structure, and reduces costs. DCPO Projects F08AR01 AND F10AR12 were utilized to demonstrate this technology. Results from this project have been included in UFC 3-301-01 Structural Engineering and a pending draft re-write UFC 3-250-04FA Standard Practice for Concrete Pavements (replaced by UFC 3-250-04 Standard Practice for Concrete Pavements, with Change 2).

    Water Distribution Models with Sensors (2014)

    Localized corrosion and water quality problems have been an ongoing problem for Army installations. ERDC engineers have integrated several technologies to develop a complete corrosion detection and management system. A small number of sensors feed into a SCADA and the resulting “living model” provides a complete and near real-time picture of a water system.

    Guy Crawler Inspection Tool (SIBR) (FY 2006 and 2009)

    The Guy Crawler Inspection Tool was developed to detect and identify hidden corrosion on guy wires for all large guy-supported structures (e.g. Fixed Submarine Broadcast Systems). It was learned through demonstration and development of the system that visual inspection of the guy wires is not efficient and/or guarantees that critical corrosion will be found. The tool, once fully developed will provide a repeatable and more efficient way to identify corrosion and the results from the inspection will help to develop a replacement schedule of the guys based upon corrosion and useful life of the guy. This technology is being transitioned for final development via Office of Naval Research Rapid Innovation Funds (RIF). If successful, this tool and methodology could be utilized for life-cycle support and inspection for large guy wires. The antenna guy wire tool SBIR project was also demonstrated using D, CPO funds (projects FY06 FNV06 and FY09 FNV09).

    Splash Zone Coating (SBIR) (FY2005)

    The splash zone is the waterfront area from low tide to 10 feet or more above high tide depending on local conditions. It has the highest rate of corrosion in a naturally occurring environment. The intent of this project was to replace the high VOC and environmentally hazardous systems currently in use with a coating system that would: a) be a low VOC non-hazardous coating system, b) provide longer than the typical 5 to 8 years in service life, c) be maintainable in the field, and d) be simple to apply.

    The EXWC has evaluated current alternatives; all had some limiting factors that lead to the need to develop a completely new alternative. The new coating system has zero VOC’s, coal tar free, no hazardous materials including free of toxic metals, cures underwater for in situ maintenance, excellent bond to damp metal, exceeded solicitation requirements.

    The product is supported by two companies but the technology can be replicated by others so that competition will help keep the costs down. Service life is expected to exceed 20 years which is more than twice and up to 4 times current systems. Results from this project have been included in UFGS 09 97 13.26 Coating of Steel Waterfront Structures.
    The Splash Zone Coating was an SBIR project that transitioned to the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) and was finally demonstrated with D, CPO funds in FY05 (Project N-F-221 Self-Priming Cladding (SPC) for Splash Zone Steel).

    Interior Coating for Fuel Tanks (SBIR)

    The coating system for concrete tanks currently in use is difficult to apply, may not be successful, and the second system can have a short life span. No new concrete tanks are planned for construction but current ones must be maintained. The EXWC worked with industry to develop a system that could be used on both steel and concrete fuel tanks. The system has zero VOC's, greater adhesion and impact resistance than current systems, can be applied to concrete and steel substrates, but requires specialized equipment to apply. Service life is expected to exceed 50 years which is more than twice current systems. The transition strategy is to update criteria which are currently under development. Results from this project have been included in UFGS 09 97 13.15 Epoxy/Fluoropolyurethane Interior Coating of Welded Steel Petroleum Fuel Tanks and a pending draft re-write UFGS 09 97 13.17 Three Coat Epoxy Interior Coating of Welded Steel Petroleum Fuel Tanks.
    The EXWC worked with industry to develop a system that could be used on both steel and concrete fuel tanks. The system has zero VOC's, greater adhesion and impact resistance than current systems, can be applied to concrete and steel substrates, but requires specialized equipment to apply. Service life is expected to exceed 50 years which is more than twice current systems. The transition strategy is to update criteria which are currently under development. Results from this project have been included in UFGS 09 97 13.15 Epoxy/Fluoropolyurethane Interior Coating of Welded Steel Petroleum Fuel Tanks and a pending draft re-write UFGS 09 97 13.17 Three Coat Epoxy Interior Coating of Welded Steel Petroleum Fuel Tanks.

    Examples of Non-DoD Government and Industry
    Corrosion-Related Technology Improvements

    Technology and description Impact/usability

    Corrosion Research on Rock Bolts and Steel Sets for Sub-Surface Reinforcement of the Yucca Mountain Repository (2009)

    The purpose of this study was to understand environmental effects such as corrosion/oxidation of the support structure of the underground Yucca Mountain repository. In broad terms, research was conducted on two classes of materials: Rock bolts and Super alloys. It was prepared by the University of Nevada, Reno for the U.S. Department of Energy and the University Community College System of Nevada. Funding for this project was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management.

    Benefits of this study include a better understanding of the corrosion rates of different steels and Alloy 22 in the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste repository. Many important findings for the Yucca Mountain project were discovered including the corrosion behavior of Alloy 22, HSLA steels, AISI-SAE 4340 steel, and high-temperature oxidation kinetics.

    Reinforced Concrete Pipe Cracks—Acceptance Criteria (July 2011 Final Report – Reinforced Concrete Pipe Cracks–Acceptance Criteria (Contract No. BDK84 977–06)

    The purpose of this project is to (1) determine the influential parameters responsible for crack healing in in-place Reinforced Concrete Pipes (RCP), (2) determine what may constitute a maximum crack with amendable autogenous healing and sufficient to mitigate reinforcement corrosion, and (3) formulate guiding models detailing pipe crack acceptance criteria during construction. This project was performed by the University of South Florida, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Funding was provided by the Florida Department of Transportation.

    A predictive model for corrosion development in cracked reinforced concrete pipe was formulated and applied to interpret the outcome of the laboratory corrosion tests. Acceptance crack width guideline models proposed for discussion.
    Federal Facility Criteria: 
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