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- Energy Efficient Lighting
- Facility Performance Evaluation (FPE)
Last updated: 05-26-2010
The Warehouse space type is designed to store goods and materials, as well as to allow for the regular circulation of occupants, vehicles, and machinery that are typically associated with the handling of these goods and materials. Essential to this space type is the capacity to accommodate vertical storage, space for vehicle material movement, and anticipated high floor loads.
See also WBDG Warehouse Building Type.
A wide range of storage alternatives, picking alternatives, material handling equipment and software exist to meet the physical and operational requirements of a warehouse space type, and proper integration of these features is essential. Warehouse spaces must also be flexible enough to adapt to future operations and storage needs. Typical features of Warehouse space types include the list of applicable design objectives elements as outlined below. For a complete list and definitions of the design objectives within the context of whole building design, click on the titles below.
- Efficient Use of Space: Warehouse space types are often designed with higher bays to take advantage of vertical storage. Utilization of space is maximized while providing adequate circulation paths for personnel and material handling equipment such as forklift trucks.
- Design for Live Loads: Designs should anticipate the loads of stored materials and associated handling equipment, typically 250 LB/SF. Snow, wind, and seismic loads shall be considered where they are applicable. Racking in seismic areas must be built stronger and be better braced.
- Power and Utility Requirements: Differentiate between spaces that require power and utilities, and those that are for storage only. Depending on the goods being stored and handling equipment required, there may be a need for well-distributed power and utility lines throughout the space. Attempt energy-efficient lighting when possible. Warehouse spaces typically include one floor drain for every two bays of storage, as well as sand and oil traps on waste lines.
- Loading Dock: Warehouse space types are typically designed with one electro-hydraulic dock leveler per every five truck bays.
- Occupancy: Occupancy Group Classification is Storage Group S in Group S-1 or S-2 classifications with sprinklered construction. See also WBDG Secure/Safe—Plan for Fire Protection
- Special HVAC: Provide proper ventilation under all circumstances. Plan for 100% exhaust from storage areas with paint, petroleum, aerosol, or other minor amounts posing moderate hazard storage conditions. For more information, see High-Performance HVAC and Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality.
The following building program is representative of Warehouse space types.
Tenant Assignable Spaces
|Qty.||SF Each||Space Req'd.||Sum Actual SF||Tenant Usable Factor||Tenant USF|
|Office Support Spaces||80|
|Receiving And Shipping||4,100||1.09||4,481|
|Tenant Usable Areas||42,592|
The following diagram is representative of typical tenant plans.
Example Construction Criteria
For GSA, the unit costs for Warehouse space types are based on the construction quality and design features in the following table (PDF 45 KB, 3 pgs). This information is based on GSA's benchmark interpretation and could be different for other owners.
Relevant Codes and Standards
The following agencies and organizations have developed codes and standards affecting the design of Warehouse space types. Note that the codes and standards are minimum requirements. Architects, engineers, and consultants should consider exceeding the applicable requirements whenever possible.
- UFC 4-440-01A Storage Depots
- UFC 4-442-01N Design: Covered Storage
- GSA, P-100, Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service
- International Building Code
- NFPA 230 Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage
- VA VHA Acquisition and Materiel Management Service—Warehouse
Accessible—Plan for Flexibility: Be Proactive, Functional / Operational—Account for Functional Needs, Secure / Safe—Plan for Fire Protection, Secure / Safe—Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets, Sustainable—Optimize Energy Use
- Architectural Graphic Standards, 11th Edition by Charles Ramsey and Harold Sleeper. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007.