- Aesthetic Challenges
- Aesthetic Opportunities
- Air Decontamination
- Assessment Tools for Accessibility
- Balancing Security/Safety and Sustainability Objectives
- Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV)
- Distributed Energy Resources (DER)
- Electric Lighting Controls
- Electrical Safety
- Energy Efficient Lighting
- Evaluating and Selecting Green Products
- Facility Performance Evaluation (FPE)
- Fuel Cells and Renewable Hydrogen
- Glazing Hazard Mitigation
- High-Performance HVAC
- Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA)
- Mold and Moisture Dynamics
- Natural Ventilation
- Passive Solar Heating
- Psychosocial Value of Space
- Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM)
- Solar Water Heating
- Sun Control and Shading Devices
- Sustainable O&M Practices
- Therapeutic Environments
- Threat/Vulnerability Assessments and Risk Analysis
- Water Conservation
- Windows and Glazing
Clinic / Health Unit
Last updated: 04-21-2011
The Clinic/Health Unit space types are facilities where outpatient ambulatory health services are provided. Sub-space types, such as office spaces, private toilets, and filing and storage areas are included.
This space type does not include provisions for invasive surgery, in-patient services, medical diagnostic categories I, II, and III equipment (including exam lights and medical gas systems), radiological diagnostic services (including special structural elements and radiation shielding on ceiling and floor areas), darkroom revolving door systems, or medical laboratory spaces. Clinics where general anesthesia, invasive procedures, or overnight care are provided require Institutional Occupancy construction types and are not included.
The Clinic/Health Unit space type should provide a sanitary and therapeutic environment in which patients can be treated by medical practitioners quickly and effectively. Typical features of clinic/health unit space types include the list of applicable design objectives elements as outlined below. For a complete list and definitions of the design objectives within the context of whole building design, click on the titles below.
- All areas should comply with the minimum requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and, if federally funded or owned, with the GSA's ABA Accessibility Standards. For more information, see WBDG Accessible Branch and Comply with Accessibility Requirements (historic facilities).
- Cleanliness and Sanitation: The cleanliness of a facility is not only related to a patient's medical recovery, but can also affect the perceived level of care. To maintain a sanitary environment, spaces should be easy to clean and maintain. Use durable finishes and sterile/antimicrobial surfaces as necessary. For more information, see WBDG Therapeutic Environments.
- Occupancy: The occupancy classification for the Clinic/Health Unit space type is Business Occupancy B2, with sprinklered protected construction and GSA Acoustical Class C2.
- Efficiency and Flexibility: The layout of the Clinic/Health Unit should promote prompt and reliable medical attention. Relationship and flow diagrams created at the beginning of the design process will ensure a sensible programming of space. Office support spaces such as workrooms, file rooms, copier areas, coat storage, and lockers typically will be integrated into the clinic environment. Flexibility must also be a basic feature of any health care facility to keep it from rapid obsolescence in the face of changing needs and technologies.
- Acoustic and Visual Privacy: The new HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accessibility Act) regulations address the security and privacy of "protected health information" (PHI). These regulations put new emphasis on acoustic and visual privacy, and may affect location and layout of workstations that handle medical records and other patient information-both paper and electronic-as well as patient accommodations. Flow diagrams created in the beginning of the design process should address controlled access areas.
- Emergency Backup Systems: Typically, this space type will require emergency battery backup for 25% of lighting. Refer to individual utility requirements for specific medical equipment.
The following building program is representative of Clinic/Health Unit spaces.
Tenant Occupiable Areas
|Qty.||SF Each||Space Req'd.||Sum Actual SF||Tenant Usable Factor||Tenant USF|
|General Patient Care||684|
|Nurse Work Area||1||40||40|
|Soiled Utility Room||1||60||60|
|Medical Records Files||1||60||60|
|Staff Support Spaces||216|
|Staff Toilet (Male)||1||60||60|
|Staff Toilet (Female)||1||60||60|
|Staff Break Room||1||60||60|
|Tenant Usable Areas||1,840|
The following diagram is representative of typical tenant plans.
Example Construction Criteria
For GSA, the unit costs for the Clinic/Health Unit space type are based on the construction quality and design features in the following table (PDF 57 KB, 5 pgs). This information is based on GSA's benchmark interpretation and could be different for other owners.
Relevant Codes and Standards
The following agencies and organizations have developed codes and standards affecting the design of health facilities, including clinics. Note that the codes and standards are minimum requirements. Architects, engineers, and consultants should consider exceeding the applicable requirements whenever possible:
- Americans with Disabilities Act
- Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Health Care Facilities by the Facility Guidelines Institute, 2010.
- Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service, P100, GSA
- International Building Code
- GSA's ABA Accessibility Standards
- Department of Veterans Affairs (VA): Office of Construction and Facilities Management Technical Information Library contains many guides and standards, including: Design Guides for planning hospital based ambulatory care clinics, community based outpatient clinics, satellite outpatient clinics, and ambulatory surgery clinics. This information library also includes Design Manuals of technical requirements, equipment lists, master specifications, room finishes, space planning criteria, and standard details.
Products and Systems
- AIA Academy of Architecture for Health (AAH)—Contains AAH newsletters, reports, and other documents related to health care design
- Architectural Graphic Standards, 11th Edition by Charles Ramsey and Harold Sleeper. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007.
- Building Type Basics for Healthcare Facilities, 2nd Edition ed. Stephen A. Kliment. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008.
- Design That Cares: Planning Health Facilities for Patients and Visitors, 2nd Edition by Janet R. Carpman, Myron A. Grant and Deborah A. Simmons. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.
- Innovations in Healthcare Design: Selected Presentations from the First Five Symposia on Healthcare Design ed. Sara Marberry. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995.